OS Interview Questions

By | July 25, 2019

If you are preparing for a Technical Interview round, so you must go through these Operating System Interview questions which we have provided here. In Technical interview apart from problem-solving skills, your knowledge about OS would also be tested. In interviews, you might have to face questions from Operating Systems and these are basic questions and every Software developer or IT student supposed to aware of these questions because at last whatever you create with your programming skills it needs an Operating system to run. It’s True that Computer science students, after completing their bachelor’s degree do not even have basic knowledge of Operating system, because they are so confused amongst Programming languages so they do not get time to learn about different Operating Systems.

OS Interview Questions (Operating System)

Here in this article, we have provided the frequent asked Operating System Interview questions please go through these so you do not go offhanded for the interview.

Question: What is an Operating System?
Answer: It is a program which provides an interface between the software and hardware of a computer. An Operating system provides an environment to the user so he can execute the software using the hardware.

Question: Name some functions of the Operating system.
Answer:

  • Memory management
  • Processor management
  • Device management
  • File management
  • Security
  • Job accounting
  • Control over system performance
  • Error detection
  • Communicate between user and software
  • Communication between software and hardware.

Question: Name the different Operating System.
Answer:

  • Batched Operating System
  • Interactive OS
  • Multi-processing Operating system
  • Multi-tasking operative system
  • Distributed Operating System
  • Multi-programmed Operating systems
  • Real-Time Operating System
  • Timesharing Operating System

Question: What is Booting?
Answer: It is a procedure of turning on the computer by loading the kernel.

Question: What is Bootstrap program?
Answer: It is a program that locates in the kernel of an Operating system and when we boot the system it is the first program that executes and store the read-only memory (ROM).

Question: What is the use of an Operating System?
Answer: An operating system acts as a management system between the system software and hardware, and guide the hardware how to act according to the provided software. It also controls the flow of the program and provides an environment so the software can communicate with system hardware.

Question: Define a multi-programming system.
Answer: In the multi-programming system, the system keeps the different program in different parts of the main memory simultaneously and execute each of those concurrently.

Question: Define multi-tasking systems.
Answer: In multitasking systems program keeps in main memory so the system can execute them simultaneously.

Question: What are the time-sharing systems?
Answer: In time-sharing systems, multiple users can use a specific program from the different terminal at the same time.

Question: Give the advantages of the multiprocessor system.
Answer: Multi-processor as by its name, it’s clear that it uses more than one processor with the increase in processor number the processing capability of the system increase too.

Question: What is virtual memory?
Answer: Virtual memory is a memory management method which helps to execute the process using the main and secondary memory. Though the program gets executed using the main memory, the resources and pages load from the secondary memory.

Question: What is kernel in Operating system?
Answer: It is the most important part of the Operating system also known as the core of the Operating system. It presents in the main memory of the system and loads first before any other part of the operating system. Every operating system consists a kernel, for example, Linux kernel is one of the famous kernels because apart from Linux itself Android also uses this.

Question: What are the main functions of a kernel in an operating system?
Answer:

  • Process management
  • Resource management
  • Disk management
  • Memory management
  • Device management
  • Communicate between hardware and software.

Question: Define the two most famous type of Kernels.
Answer: Though there are many types of kernels, only two of them considered in use.

  • Monolithic Kernel
  • MicroKernel

Monolithic Kernel: In this type of kernel all the User services and kernel services reside in the same memory space. The old operating system would use this type of kernels some examples are Linux, Windows 95, 98, Unix, etc.

MicroKernel: This type of Kernel is small in size and all the User and Kernel services reside in the different memory address. Operating systems like Mac OS X, windows use this type of Kernel.

Question: Give some disadvantages of Microkernel.
Answer:

  • Complex process management
  • Debugging the messaging is complex
  • Loss in performance because of the requirement of more software.

Question: What is SMP?
Answer: It stands for Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP), and it is an architecture which contains multiple processors to complete the process, here all the processors share the single memory.

Question: What is Asymmetric clustering?
Answer: Asymmetric clustering occurs when server running application fond some kind of cluster. In asymmetric clustering, one server tries to run the server application while others remain on standby mode.

Question: What is the thread?
Answer: It is a flow of execution through the process code, it deals with the instruction to be executed.

Question: What is demanding Paging?
Answer: Demanding pages is a concept used by the virtual machine of loading required and needed number of pages from secondary memory to the main memory. These required number of pages enough to execute the process.

Question: What is the process?
Answer: When a program is in execution mode that is known as a process.

Question: Name all the state of a Process.
Answer:

  • New
  • Running
  • Waiting
  • Ready
  • Terminate

Question: How thread is different from the process?
Answer:

  • The process is Independent whereas Thread is not.
  • One thread designed to assist other thread whereas the process is not.
  • If one thread stops the next thread starts executing but, in the process this is not a case.

Question: What is a deadlock?
Answer: When two processes are trying to execute simultaneously, and they are waiting for each-other to execute so they could also start their own execution this halt in executing is known as deadlock. The deadlock occurs in the program we can see the hang problem in our system.

Question: What are the necessary conditions for a deadlock?
Answer:

  • Mutual Exclusion
  • Hold and wait
  • No pre-emption
  • Circular wait

Question: What is starvation?
Answer: When a program is in process and it does not get all the resources to execute, because resources are provided to some other program for performing different process this problem of not getting all needed resources is known as starvation.

Question: What is a command interpreter?
Answer: It is a text field I/O interface between the user and the operating system. In command interpreter, the user gives input through the keyboard using command lines.

Question: What is the daemon
Answer: It stands for Disk and Execution monitor, and it is a long-running background process that acts on the request. The life cycle of daemon commences with the system booting until the system shut down.

Question: From where the daemon originate and how we classified them?
Answer: The term daemon originated with UNIX. In UNIX the daemon conventionally ends with ‘d’ for example ‘inetd’, ‘nfsd’, httpd’, and ‘lpd’.

Question: What is race condition?
Answer: It is a situation that occurs when different operation performs on the same data at the same time, and the outcome of the execution depends on the order of the operation performed on the data. The race condition can provide an undesirable outcome.

Question: What is process synchronization?
Answer: When the race condition occurs, it can lead to the undesirable outcome, so to prevent from the race condition we follow a process known as synchronization. In synchronization, we ensure that only one process executes at a time.

Question: What is Semaphore?
Answer: It is a variable which is used to create a synchronized process. There are two types of semaphores one is counting semaphores another is Binary semaphore.

Counting semaphore can have positive integer values and Binary can only have 1 and 0 as variables.

Question: Explain FCFS and what is the main problem it can cause.
Answer: It stands for First Come First Serve (FCFS), it is a scheduling algorithm, according to this algorithm the CPU serve that process first which approach it first. FCFS can cause the starvation problem in which the process does not get the proper resources.

Question: Name the different RAID Levels.
Answer:

  • RAID 0 – Non-redundant striping
  • RAID 1 – Mirrored Disks
  • RAID 2 – Memory-style error-correcting codes
  • RAID 3 – Bit-interleaved Parity
  • RAID 4 – Block-interleaved Parity
  • RAID 5 – Block-interleaved distributed Parity
  • RAID 6 – P+Q Redundancy

Question: What is Cache memory?
Answer: It is a volatile computer memory directly attached to the register which provides high-speed data access to the processor.

Question: What is IPC?
Answer: IPC stands for Inter-Process Communication and it is a mechanism, in which various process can communicate with each other with the approval of the Operating system.

Question: Name the Various IPC mechanisms.
Answer:

  • Sockets
  • Pipe
  • Shared Memory
  • Signals
  • Message Queues

Question: What is Context Switch?
Answer: Context can be referred to as the data in the register. A context switch is a procedure in which the CPU change from one task to another task.

Question: Give the difference between compiler and Interpreter.
Answer: A compiler read all the code at once first then try to execute it whereas the interpreter read the code line by line and simultaneously execute it.

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