**PHP – Operators**

Operators are used for performing various functions or operations on variables and values. PHP supports a number of operator types to get the desired output. Some of the operators are defined below-

- Arithmetic operators
- Logical operator
- Conditional operator
- Assignment operator
- Comparison operator

**1. Arithmetic operators**

Arithmetic operators perform arithmetic operations on variables and on the numeric data. The concatenate operator also works in case of works on strings values. PHP supports the following arithmetic operators for provided two variable x and y. These operators are not only confined to two variable but as an example, we are using two variables.

Operator |
Name |
Description |
Example |
Output |

+ | Addition | Provide a summation of x and y | 2 + 1; | 3 |

– | Subtraction | Provide a difference of x and y | 2 – 1; | 1 |

* | Multiplication | Provide a Multiplication of x and y | 3 * 1; | 3 |

/ | Division | Provide the quotient of x and y | 45 / 3; | 15 |

% | Php Modulus | Provides the reminder of diving x and y | 10 % 6; | 4 |

-n | Negation | Turns n into a negative number provided n is positive | -(-2); | 2 |

x. y | Concatenation | Connect together x and y | “PHP” . ” Operator”;10 . 3; | PHP Operator103 |

### 2. **Assignment Operators**

Assignment operators are basically used for assigning values to variables that can also be used together with arithmetic operators.

Operator |
Name |
Description |
Example |
Output |

x = ? | assignment | Assigns the value of ? to x | $x = 2; | 2 |

x += ? | addition | Increments the value of x by ? | $x = 1;$x += 2; | 3 |

X -= ? | subtraction | Subtracts ? from the value of x | $x = 9;$x -= 2; | 7 |

X *=? | multiplication | Multiplies the value of x by ? times | $x = 1;$x *=9; | 9 |

X /=? | division | Provides the quotient of x and ? | $x = 9;$x /=3; | 3 |

X %=? | modulus | Provides reminder of dividing x by? | $x = 5;$x %= 2; | 1 |

X .=? | concatenate | Puts together items | ” $x = ‘Name’;$x .= ‘ Full!’;” | NameFull |

### 3. **Comparison operators**

Comparison operators are used to comparing values, variables, and data types. Below are the comparison operators that are supported by PHP:

Operator |
Name |
Description |
Example |
Output |

X == y | Equal | Compares the value of x and y then returns true if they are equal | 3 == “3”; | True or 1 |

X === y | identical | Compares both values and data types. | 1 === “1”; | False or 0. Since 1 is integer and “1” is string |

X != y, x <> y | PHP Not equal | Compares the values of x and y. returns true if the values are not equal | 3 != 1; | True or 1 |

X > y | Greater than | Compares the values of x and y. returns true if x is greater than y | 2 > 1; | True or 1 |

X < y | Less than | Compares the values of x and y. returns true if x is less than y | 5 < 1; | False or 0 |

X >= y | Greater than or equal | Compares values of x and y. returns true if x is greater than or equal to y | 2 >=2 | True or 1 |

X <= y | Less than or equal | Compares values of x and y. returns true if x is greater than or equal to y | 9 <= 6 | False or 0 |

### 4. **Logical operators**

If you are working with logical operators, any number greater than or less than zero (0) will evaluate to true. Zero (0) evaluates to false.

Operator |
Name |
Description |
Example |
Output |

X and y, x && y | And | Returns the true value if both x and y are equal | 1 and 5;True&& False; | True or 1False or 0 |

X or y, x || y | Or | Returns the true value if either x or y is true | 6 or 9;0 || 0; | True or 1False or 0 |

X xor y | Exclusive or, xor | Returns the true value if the only x is true or the only y is true | 2 xor 2;1 xor 0; | False or 0True or 1 |

!x | Not | Returns the true value if x is false and false if x is true | !0; | True or 1 |

**5. Conditional Operator**

A conditional operator generally used within conditional expressions that evaluates an expression for a true or false value which will lead to the execution of a given set of instructions that depend on the result of the evaluation. The conditional operator has below mentioned syntax −

Operator |
Description |
Example |

? : | Conditional Expression | If Condition is true? Then value X: Otherwise value Y |

**Precedence of PHP Operators**

Operator precedence shows how the terms or the variables have to be grouped within an expression. This affects how an expression is evaluated or in what order the operators will get executed. Certain operators have higher precedence than others and the higher precedence operator will be executed first than the other operator. In case there are two operators with the same precedence then they will get executed left to right.

The below table states the operators with higher precedence at the top and decreasing.

Category |
Operator |
Associativity |

Unary | ! ++ — | Right to left |

Multiplicative | * / % | Left to right |

Additive | + – | Left to right |

Relational | < <= > >= | Left to right |

Equality | == != | Left to right |

Logical AND | && | Left to right |

Logical OR | || | Left to right |

Conditional | ?: | Right to left |

Assignment | = += -= *= /= %= | Right to left |

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