C++ vs Java

    C++ and Java both support object-oriented programming and are statically typed programming languages. Though there are many similarities between Java and C++, the two programming languages are not interchangeable.

    There was a time when C++ and Java competed to become the most popular programming language. Moreover, the reason for their extended popularity in their early years was that they both support object-oriented programming (OOP). At that time, there were not many languages that follows OOP.

    For a beginner, choosing between C++ and Java is always tough. However, most of the time, it is suggested that C++ is a better language to learn for beginners because it is not a pure object-oriented language.

    This article draws a simple comparison between C++ and Java that can help beginners to make a choice between the two programming languages. But before we move on to discuss C++ vs Java, let’s have a quick overview of each programming language.

    Introduction to C++

    C++ is a high-level, general-purpose programming language that supports multiple programming paradigms, such as object-oriented, functional, and procedural programming . Bjarne Stroustrup develops it at Bell Labs as an extension of the C programming language.

    It is a procedural language that executes code line by line and supports structure programming . Apart from procedural programming, C++ also has extensive support for object-oriented programming, which helps solve real-world problems.

    It is also a statically typed language, meaning that we have to define every variable's data type. Also, C++ is a popular choice for designing graphical applications.

    Introduction to Java

    Java is also a high-level programming language that Sun Microsystems develop. It is a pure object-oriented programming language, and it is generally used to build software for different operating systems.

    Like C++, Java is also a statically typed programming language and shares almost the same syntax as C++. It uses the compiler to compile its source code to bytecode, and this bytecode is platform-independent.

    Java vs C++: A Head-to-Head Comparison



    Programming Type

    Java is an object-oriented programming language.

    C++ is a procedural as well as an object-oriented programming language.

    Translator tools

    Java uses a compiler as well as an interpreter to execute its source code.

    C++ only uses a compiler to execute its source code.

    Operator Overloading

    In operator overloading, we can alter the functionality of operators such as +, *, - etc., and Java does not have inbuilt support for operator overloading.

    C++ supports support for operator overloading.

    Multiple Inheritance

    In multiple inheritance, many classes can inherit the property of one class, and Java does not support multiple inheritance.

    However, newer updates of Java provide some support for multiple inheritance.

    C++ supports multiple inheritance.

    Build Applications

    Java is used to build applications for different operating systems .

    C++ is limited to building applications for Windows.


    Libraries are the pre-written codes that programmers can use to add various features to applications with minimal effort, and Java has many libraries.

    C++ doe not have many libraries as Java.

    Learning Curve

    Java is a difficult language to learn.

    C++ is easy to learn as compared to Java.


    Java does not have pointers.

    C++ uses the pointer to store the memory address of variables.


    Java comes with an in-built thread class that can be inherited from the working class.

    C++ does not have the concept of the thread.

    Interoperability with other programming languages

    There is no backward compatibility in Java, but it follows the interoperability with the Scala programming language.

    C++ can interoperate with the C language with some syntax changes.


    Write once, run anywhere, everywhere.

    Write once and run anywhere.

    Code execution

    Source code is compiled by the compiler and converted into bytecode. Then the byte code is executed by the interpreter .

    The compiler compiles the source code and gets executed.

    Memory Management

    Java Compiler automatically controls the memory.

    Users can control memory manually.

    Scope resolution

    There is no scope resolution (::) in Java to access a global variable.

    C++ supports the scope resolution concept.


    Java compiler handles all the memory management, so there is no destructor concept.

    In C++, programmers can access the memory, so it has the destructor concept.


    Once the source code is compiled and we have a bytecode, we can run it on any Java Virtual Machine ( JVM ) platform. This also eliminates the need to compile the code every time we want to run it.

    We must compile the C++ source code every time we try to run it on a system or platform.


    Java has threads and interfaces.

    C++ has structure, pointers, and union


    Java automatically uses static and Dynamic Binding.

    Programmers have to assign syntax for dynamic binding explicitly.


    Java and C++ share almost the same syntax for many important statements. Also, there is no prerequisite to learning these languages, making them ideal for individuals looking to step into the world of programming.

    However, we suggest that you learn C++ as your first programming language because it follows the procedural programming paradigm, which helps you build logical reasoning and help you understand program flow better. Still, it's important for you to understand the differences between the two languages and choose a programming language that seems the best fit for your needs.

    Hopefully, this C++ vs Java article helped you familiarize yourself with the essential differences between the two programming languages. Also, if you have suggestions or queries, just leave them in the comments sections below.