Git Commands

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Git Commands

Vinay Khatri
Last updated on August 1, 2022

    While working on a big project with a developer team, we use a version control system (VCS) that keeps track of the project code and maintains all the versions of it. Therefore, if we want to roll back to the previous version, we can do that easily. Git is the most popular, fast, and scalable version control system, and it works with commands. Here in this article, we have provided some of the most important Git commands that you should know if you want to use Git for version control. If we do not use a version control system, we will not be able to manage project versions properly. For example, if we create a new project that contains a lot of files and after a week we want to add some new functionality, we would add some new code or edit some code in the previous file and create a new version of that project. This all process of changing or modifying the previous version of projects can be tracked by a version control system like Git so that other developers that are working on the same project can see what changes have been made on the project and what was the previous code. Please note that here we have not covered all the commands of Git because there are hundreds of Git commands, and it is impossible to go through and learn each one of them. Thus, we focus only on some of the most important Git commands here that are enough to serve our purpose.

    What is Git?

    Git is an open-source distributed version control system (DVCS). It is an application that keeps track of your project version and helps you to manage the project. Being a distributed VCS means that all the members of a team that are working on the same project would have the complete version of the project.

    Git Features

    • Keeps track of project files.
    • Tracks all the changes made in the project.
    • Records all the changes.
    • It can restore an old version of the project.
    • Helps to compare the new code and old code.
    • Distributes the same project to different developers.
    • Merges code from a different computer.

    Git Commands List

    Here we are sharing a curated list of Git Commands that are executed by the developers on a day-to-day basis:

    1. git inti command

    This command is used to initialize git in a new or existing directory. It creates a hidden directory .git, which is responsible for all the git operations and history control of the directory.

    Command

    git init <directory name>

    Example

    If we specify the directory name, it will initialize the git in that directory. If the directory name is omitted, it will initialize git in the current working directory. The above command will initialize git in the current directory.

    2. git clone

    With the git clone command, we can download the existing remote repository into our local system from sources like GitHub.

    Command

    git clone <link of the repository>

    Example

    3. git add

    After making the changes in the files, we can add all those changes to git by using the git add command. The git add command takes a snapshot of the changes before we make the final commit. Using the git add command, we can add all the changes made over the project or just add the specific file or directory changes.

    Command

    To add a single file

    git add <file name>

    To add all files

    git add . 
    Or 
    git add -A

    4. git commit

    git commit is one of the most used git commands. After adding the changes using the commit command, we can save all the changes with a message.

    Command

    git commit -m "commit message"

    Example

    5. git branch

    Using the git branch command, we can create, list, and delete branches of a git project. Branches represent the developers connected to the same git project and help developers to work on the same project.

    Commands

    a. Create a new branch

    git branch <branch name>

    Example This command will create a branch by name guest1 locally. b. View all branches To view all the branches, we can use the following commands:

    git branch 
    or 
    git branch –list

    Example

    c. Delete a branch To delete a branch, we can use the branch command with the -d flag.

    6 . git checkout

    To switch between branches, we can use the git checkout command. This command allows us to move from one branch to another.

    Command

    git checkout <name of the branch>

    Example

    Before checking out to another branch, here are some points you should keep in mind:

    1. The changes must be added and committed before switching to another branch.
    2. The branch to move must also exist locally.

    We can also use the checkout command to create and move to a new branch.

    Command:

    git checkout -b <branch  name>
    

    Example The -b flag in the above command stands for branch.

    7. git status

    To get all the information about the current working branch, we can use the git status command.

    Command

    git status

    Example The status command returns the following information:

    • The current pending updation status.
    • The current pending commit, push and pull status.
    • Staged files, unstaged files and untracked status.
    • The file creation, modification, and deletion status.

    The git status command comes useful to see all the details before we switch to another branch.

    8. git remote

    To upload the locally git project on a remote server like Github, we first need to connect our local project to the remote server. To connect the local repository to a remote server repository, we can use the git remote command.

    Command

    git remote add origin <remote_server_link>

    Example

    Note: Github now prefers to use the name main rather than master for the root or main branch.

    If your main branch name is master, you can rename it using the git branch -b command. From the master branch, run the following command.

    git branch -m main

    It will change the name of the master branch to main. 9. git push After making the changes using the commit command to upload the project directory or changes on the remote server like GitHub, we can use the git push command.

    Command:

    Git push <remote> <branch-name>
    Or 
    git push origin <branch-name>

    10. git pull

    When multiple developers work on a single project, and everyone push the new commit from their sides, there to get the latest or updated repo from the remote repo, we can use the git pull command. The git pull command gets the updated repo from the remote server and merges it to our local setup repo.

    Command

    git pull <remote>

    Example The pull command is a combination of git fetch and git merge commands.

    11. git revert

    To undo a git commit, we can use the git revert command. Every time a commit is made, a unique commit id gets associated with that commit. To see all the commit ids, we can use the git log –oneline command.

    Command

    git revert <commit id>

    Note: After executing the git revert command, the vi editor will open to set the new revert commit message. To quit from the vi editor, you can press ESC+:w+q and hit enter.

    12. git diff

    To see all the differences in the files before adding them using the add command, we can use the git diff command.

    Command

    git diff

    Example

    To see the file difference between the two branches, we can use the git diff [first_branch_name] [second_branch_name] command.

    13. git reset

    Similar to git revert, the git reset command can undo the already made commits. Using git reset, we can get back to a previous commit git project. The main difference between the git reset command, and the git revert command is that git revert makes a new commit by reverting to the specified old commit. But the git reset command gets back to the specified old commit and deletes all the next commits.

    Command

    git reset <commit_id>

    Example

    14. git rm

    With the help of the git rm command, we can delete or remove files and add them to the git stack. The git rm command not only deletes the file locally, but it adds the deletion operation into the git history.

    Command

    git rm <file>

    Example

    15. git log command

    The git log command lists the history of commits.

    Command

    git log

    Example

    16. git show command

    To see all the metadata and the content change done in a specific commit, we can use the git show command.

    Command

    git show <commit_id>

    Examp le

    17. git merge command

    When multiple branches make commit from their side, we can use the merge command to merge all those commits or changes into one unified branch.

    Command

    git merge <branch_name>

    Example

    18. git stash command

    With the help of the git stash command, we can save our uncommitted changes for later use. After saving the uncommitted changes using the stash command, we can perform commit, switch branch, and any other operation. But when we want to revert back to one of the uncommitted saves, we can use the stash saved uncommitted stag.

    Command

    git stash save

    Example

    To list out all the stash lists, we can use the git stash list command.

    19. git fetch command

    Similar to the git pull command, we can use the git fetch command to download one or more than one remote repository in our local repository. The difference between git pull and git fetch is that the git pull command downloads and merges the changes in our local repository, whereas the git fetch command will only download the repository.

    Command

    git fetch <remote>

    Example

    20. git config command

    With the help of the git config command, we can configure the user for the local and global setup of the git. We can also use the config command to see the current user configuration of the repository.

    Command (To set the current local username of the repo)

    git config –local user.name "Username"

    Example

    Command (To see the current local username of the repo)

    git config –local user.name

    Example

    Command (To see and set the current username and email of the global repo)

    git config –global user.name
    git config –global user.name "Username"
    git config –global user.email "email@email.com"

    Example

    21. git grep command

    The git grep command helps us to find the files that match the specified pattern.

    Command

    git grep -n <pattern>

    Example

    Note: The -n prefix stands for the line number for the matching lines.

    22. git archive command

    To compress a repository to a tar, tgz, zip, or tar.gz file, we can use the git archive command.

    Command

    git archive –output <./file_name.format –format> –<fomat_name> HEAD

    Example

    23. git gui command

    Most of the time, when we work with git, we use CLI (Command Line Interface), but git also provides a TCL/Tk-based graphical interface for better visualization of the git operation. To use this graphical git interface, we can use the git gui command.

    Command

    git gui

    Example

    After executing the git command, you will see a similar graphical interface:

    24. git gc command

    gc in the git gc command stands for garbage collection. Using this command, we can clean the mess, garbage collection, unwanted or inaccessible resources from the current repository.

    Command

    git gc

    Example

    25. gitk

    It is a utility tool git command that comes useful to visualize the repository or a specific commit.

    Command

    gitk

    Example

    26. git –version command

    To see your current git version, you can use the git –version command.

    Command

    git –version

    Example

    27. git –help command

    To list the top git commands and see the official documentation of the commands, you can use the git help command.

    Command

    git –help

    Example

    To see the official documentation of a specific command, we can put the command name after –help in the git command.

    Command

    git –help <command_name>

    Example

    28. git --exec-path command

    It is one of the basic Git commands. To know the path where your git program is installed, you can use the git --exec-path command.

    Command

    git --exec-path

    Example

    29. git bisect command

    When multiple developers work on the same project, it increases the number of commits as well as the complexity to find the bug among those commits. To tackle this problem, Git provides the git bisect command for debugging the bad revision or commit made by you and other developers, so you do not have to manually look for every commit.

    Command

    git bisect

    30. git clean command

    To remove all the files of a repository that is untracked by the git, we can use the git clean command. Untracked files are those files in the repository that are unknown to the git and have not been staged. The git clean command is generally used to remove the build files.

    Command

    git clean -i

    The -i flag stands for interactive mode, which means it will log the details of the cleaning process. We can also remove the ignored file by setting the -x option.

    Command

    git clean -x

    31. git shortlog command

    The git shortlog command comes very useful when you want to see all the numbers of commits and commit messages on a branch.

    Command

    git shortlog

    Example

    32. git annotate command

    The git annotate command returns the information about every line of the file from the commit when the line was introduced in the file. Command

    git annotate <file_name>

    Example

    33. git blame command

    The blame command is similar to the annotate command. It also provides information about the file, such as the last modified date and revision. The only difference between git blame and git annotate is the output format. Git also prefers to use the git blame command instead of git annotate. The only reason why git annotate is still in use is because of the backward compatibility with older repos.

    Command

    git blame <file>

    Example

    34. git count-objects command

    To know the number of unpacked files and the total space they are occupying, we can use the git count-objects command.

    Command

    git count-objects

    Example

    35. git show-branch command

    To see all the available branches on repo and the commits made by those branches, we can use the git show-branch command.

    Command

    git show-branch -a

    -a option is to show all the branches.

    Example

    36. git whatchanged command

    The whatchanged git command works similarly to the git log command. It also shows the commit details along with the difference that each commit introduces in the repo.

    Command

    git whatchanged

    Example

    36. git cherry command

    With the git cherry command, we can find out all the commits that yet can be applied to the mainstream. Command

    git cherry

    37. git cherry-pick command

    git cherry-pick is a very powerful git command. Using this command, we can select a commit from one branch and apply it to some other branch. To use the Git command, you first need to switch to the branch where you want to apply the commit then execute the following command. Command

    git cherry-pick <commit-hash-id>

    To see commit-hash-id, you can use the git log –oneline command.

    38. git rebase command

    When we use the git merge command, it merges the changes from one branch into the current branch. The merge command is generally used to put the final commit of one branch to the main branch. The merge command put the changes in the forward direction, but with the git rebase command, we can take the commits of the current branch and apply them to the head or top of the specified branch.

    Command

    git rebase <specified_branch>

    39. git describe command

    The describe command shows the tag that is reachable from the latest commit.

    Command

    git describe –all

    40. git maintenance command

    If your git commands are running slow for the repository, you can run the git maintenance command to optimize the repository data and speed up the overall commands.

    Command

    git maintenance run

    Example

    41. git mv command

    To move or rename a local repo file using git, we can use the git mv command.

    Command to move the file

    git mv <source_file> <destination_directory>

    Command to rename the file

    git mv <source_file> <renamed_file>

    42. git difftool command

    To see the changes or differences between two commits, we can use the git difftool command.

    Command

    git difftool commit1-hash-id commit2-hash-id

    43. git fsck command

    The git fsck command is only used to check the connectivity and validity of the object database (.git/objects directory).

    Command

    git fsck

    Example

    44. git prune command

    The git prune command is a utility git command. It can remove the lost, unreachable, or orphaned git objects database (that are present in the .git/objects directory).

    Command

    git prune

    45. git submodules command

    With the submodule git command, we can add someone’s repository into our own repository. This command is very useful when one project repository has dependencies on another repository.

    Command

    git submodule add <repo_url>

    Summary

    There are hundreds of git commands, but here, we have provided only a few of them, mostly basic Git commands. If you use Git for your project, then these are the most common Git commands you will use frequently. When you use Git, you do not need to learn each command. Just learn the basic ones, and those are enough to serve your purpose. The most common git commands are:

    To set a repository:

    • init
    • clone

    To make changes to the files:

    • add
    • mv
    • reset
    • rm

    To check the history:

    • bisect
    • grep
    • log
    • show
    • status

    To grow and mark the changes or history:

    • branch
    • checkout
    • commit
    • diff
    • merge
    • tag

    To work in collaboration:

    • push
    • pull
    • fetch

    Ensure adding git before each of these Git commands. People are also reading:

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