C# vs Python – Which One is the Better Choice?

By | November 24, 2021
C# vs Python

Python and C# both are high-level, object-oriented programming languages. They are easy to learn and code and offer fast development and excellent performance. Python is widely used for web development, software development, data analysis, data visualization, and task automation. On the other hand, C# is a popular choice for building web applications, desktop applications, and web services.

In this article, we shall discuss some significant differences between Python and C#. But before diving deep into the topic, let us get a quick overview of C# and Python languages.

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What is C#?

C#, also known as C Sharp, is a general-purpose, type-safe programming language that follows C and C++ constructs. It follows multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, structured, imperative, task-driven, functional, event-driven, concurrent, reflective, and generic.

Anders Heljsberg from Microsoft design C# in 200. Later, the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) approved it as an international standard in 2002. Moreover, the International Standard Organization (ISO) approved it in 2003. The latest version of C# is 9.0, released in 2020 in .NET 5.0.

C# is syntactically analogous to Java, and it is easy to learn for those who have strong knowledge of C and C++. Like Java, C# is also a platform-neutral or platform-independent language whose code can be compiled and run on all operating systems. It is commonly used with the Microsoft .NET framework for Windows.

Benefits of C#

  • C# is a simple, robust, and scalable programming language.
  • The dynamically-typed nature of C# makes it easier for developers to find errors in the code.
  • C# eliminates the problem of memory leakage.
  • It has familiar syntax identical to C and C++ languages.

Drawbacks of C#

  • C# has a steep learning curve and hence is not ideal for beginners to learn. Those who have basic knowledge of C, C++, and Java, can learn C# easily.
  • It has poor cross-platform support.
  • C# is less flexible than other programming languages, as it depends on the .NET framework.

What is Python?

Python is a general-purpose, high-level, interpreted language. The design of Python uses significant indentation that emphasizes code readability. It follows multiple programming principles, such as object-oriented, functional, structured, reflective, and procedural. Python includes a comprehensive standard library and is hence often known as a ‘batteries included’ language.

Guido Van Rossum introduced Python 0.9.0 in 1991 as a successor of the ABC language. Later in 2000, Python 2.0 was released with additional features, including a garbage collection system and list comprehensions. Python 3.0, which was released in 2008, is a major revision of the language. The latest version of Python is 3.9.0.

Python is well-known for its code readability feature. Also, it is easy to learn and understand Python as its syntax uses simple English keywords and does not use curly brackets to delimit blocks; it uses whitespace indentation. Another advantage of Python is that it allows developers to write code in a few lines compared to other programming languages.

Benefits of Python

  • Python is a dynamically typed language. It means that there is no need to define the data type of a variable as it automatically assigns the data types to variables at runtime.
  • Python is easy to read, learn, and write because of its English-like syntax. Also, it eliminates the use of semicolons after the end of a statement and delimiters to start and end a block.
  • As Python is an interpreted language, it executes code line by line and stops the execution in case of an error, and reports it back.
  • It is free and open-source, enabling us to download and modify its source-code
  • There is no need to depend on external libraries, as Python’s standard library is a comprehensive suite of modules.
  • Python is compatible and portable across Windows, macOS, and Unix/Linux systems.

Drawbacks of Python

  • Python offers slow speed because it is an interpreted language, and it executes code line by line. Also, Python’s dynamic nature makes it slow because it has to perform extra work during the execution of the code.
  • It is not an ideal choice for memory-intensive tasks, as it consumes a large amount of memory due to the flexibility of data types.
  • Because Python is memory inefficient and has slow processing power, it is not used in developing client-side or mobile applications.

C# vs Python: Head to Head Comparison

The below table highlights all the notable differences between C# and Python languages.

C# Python
Microsoft developed C# and offers it free of cost for commercial purposes. Python is open-source and free to use for commercial and non-commercial purposes.
It is statically typed, i.e., it requires explicit declaration of variables. Python is dynamically typed and does not require explicit declaration of variables.
C# requires .NET SDK and runtime. Moreover, the .NET ecosystem provides interoperability with other languages, like JavaScript, VB.NET, F#, Python, etc. It can seamlessly integrate with .NET, JavaScript, C, and Java.
C# is a compiled language. Python is an interpreted language.
We can achieve multithreading in C# easily. Due to Global Interpreter Lock (GIL), Python requires multiple processes to achieve multi-threading.
C# includes 86 keywords. Python 3.7 includes 33 keywords.
It supports pointers only in unsafe mode. It does not support pointers.
Program files in C# are saved as .cs extension. Python program files are saved as .py extension.
C# offers excellent performance and is faster due to Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). Writing code in Python is quicker as compared to C#. However, it slightly lacks in terms of performance.
It has a more organized and consistent syntax. Python syntax is easy to read and understand as it does not use curly braces and semicolons.
Library support in C# is good and has a base from the .NET framework. There is no beating Python in terms of library support. It has a wide collection of pre-packaged libraries.

Example of Python and C# Programs

C# Example

Let us write a simple C# program that takes input from the user and displays it with some message on the command prompt.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
namespace PrintName
{
   class PrintWebsite
   {
      static void Main(string[] args)
      {
          /* print website name*/
          string webName;
          Console.WriteLine("Please Enter Your Website Name");
          webName = Console.ReadLine();
          Console.WriteLine("Welcome to {0}", webName);
          Console.ReadLine();
       }
   }
}

Output

Please Enter Your Website Name
TechGeekBuzz
Welcome to TechGeekBuzz

Python Example

Let us print the same sentence using Python.

#print website name
webName = input ("Please Enter Your Website Name")
print("Welcome to", webName))

Output

Please Enter Your Website Name 
TechGeekBuzz
Welcome to TechGeekBuzz

From the above examples, we can see that we have achieved the desired output in Python just using two lines of code without using semicolons or curly braces, whereas C# requires around 12 lines.

Also, adding comments in Python is pretty simple. You just need to use ‘#’ for adding comments, whereas C# requires ‘/* */’. One more significant difference between the two programming languages is that Python does not require type declarations, i.e., we have not declared ‘String webName’ in Python as we did in C#.

Conclusion

Both Python and C# are general-purpose and object-oriented languages. Python would be a great option if your project is related to data research, as it has a comprehensive standard library. Choosing C# would be beneficial for developing responsive websites, web services, and desktop applications.

The organized structure of C# ensures that there are no inconsistencies in the syntax and formatting rules. On the other hand, you can write Python code faster as it requires fewer lines of code than C#. However, C# can do everything that Python can do and offers better performance.

You can use both Python and C# languages with IronPython, which is an open-source implementation of Python and is integrated with the .NET framework.

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Author: Sameeksha Medewar

Sameeksha is a freelance content writer for more than half and a year. She has a hunger to explore and learn new things. She possesses a bachelor's degree in Computer Science.

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