Today’s technological world is empowered with various software tools. They are uplifting individuals’ living standards, enhancing business activities, and making the world more smart and automated than ever before. Today, people enjoy flawless and defect-free software. However, it is important to note that most users avoid software that offers poor user experience and performance.
To ensure that a software product functions properly, testers need to perform comprehensive software testing. The term ‘software testing’ refers to the process of identifying and fixing defects in a software tool and verifying whether it functions according to the requirements of the client or end-users.
Testers use either manual or automated testing to test various components of a software product. The principal aim of software testing is to detect errors and bugs in the source code and fix them as early as possible.
A software product undergoes various types of testing, starting from its initial phase of development to the end phase. However, testers are responsible for carrying out different testing procedures on software products. Therefore, the demand for testers in today’s software world is rising exponentially.
Through this article, you will get to know a variety of information about the Selenium tester job role. Also, we will highlight the most frequently asked Selenium interview questions along with their detailed answers. So, let’s get started.
Testing as a Career
As businesses and organizations understand the benefits of software testing, they want to hire skilled testers. Also, many IT aspirants today wish to become a ‘software tester’ as there are several growth opportunities in this field.
Individuals can kickstart their journeys in the testing domain with the role of a test engineer. Later, they can work as senior test engineers. Additionally, one can choose to become a test lead and grow into a test manager.
Talking about the salary, testers can get good remuneration based on their professional experience. In many companies, testers and developers get paid equally, whereas they are even paid more than developers in some companies.
The most popular job in testing today is Selenium Tester. Selenium is one of the extensively used and industry-recognized automated testing tools. In addition, it is not a single tool; instead, it incorporates multiple tools. Therefore, you can refer to Selenium as a software suite.
Below are some key reasons why organizations adopt Selenium for testing purposes:
- Selenium is an open-source and non-proprietary testing tool.
- It works well with several frameworks and browsers.
- Selenium supports common programming languages and cross-browser testing.
- Testers use Selenium for testing mobile and web applications.
Selenium Tester Job Roles
Different types of roles are available for Selenium testing. Some of the Selenium job roles are as follows:
- Selenium Tester
- Mobile Testing Lead
- Senior QA Automation Engineer
- Selenium Test Analyst
- Selenium Automation Engineer
- Java Selenium Automation Engineer
- Software Development Test Engineer
- Senior Quality Engineer – Automation
Selenium Tester Responsibilities
Here is a list of responsibilities that a Selenium Tester has to perform:
- Outlining the most effective approach required to carry out Selenium testing.
- Creating a test plan and generating test scripts.
- Maintaining previous test suites or test scripts.
- Regularly arranging or attending meetings with stakeholders.
- Implementing test scripts.
- Providing solutions to stakeholders, project managers, developers, and manual testers.
Skills Required for Selenium Tester
Whether you are a beginner, experienced, or professional Selenium tester, there are some skills that you must possess, depending on your level of experience. First, let us look at the expertise required to become a Selenium testing.
If you have up to 2 years of experience working with Selenium, you must:
- Develop test suites and record test scripts using Selenium IDE.
- Use the Jenkins dashboard to implement Selenium test scripts.
- Possess strong knowledge of CSS, By-ID selectors, XPath, and DOM.
- Get acquainted with source code management tools.
- Have in-depth knowledge of test scenarios required to validate a software product before its launch.
If you have two to five years of experience working with Selenium, you must:
- Know how to use Selenium Webdriver for carrying out web testing.
- Know about testing frameworks like TestNG or JUnit.
- Possess expertise in either of the programming languages – Python or Java.
- Have the ability to insert new functionalities into the existing testing framework.
- Manage broken builds and CI (Jenkins) jobs.
- Hold knowledge of Selenium WebDriver’s mechanism to manage AJAX calls.
If you possess five to ten years of experience, you should:
- Hold strong expertise in managing projects using WebDriver.
- Know how to use various behaviour-driven testing tools, such as Cucumber, JDave, JBehave, Concordion, and many others.
- Have in-depth knowledge of SQL to perform testing on database validation.
- Have the ability to train juniors or other team members.
- Automate data-driven and localization test requirements.
Expert-level Selenium Testers usually have more than ten years of experience, and they should:
- Have expertise in using bug-tracking tools, such as JIRA or TestRail, in integrating automation outcomes.
- Know how to carry out the parallel implementation of tests from the test suite in a virtual environment.
- Possess the ability to use Selenium WebDriver to create reusable libraries and frameworks that can enhance the performance of a software product and minimize the test execution time.
- Hold the ability to deliver continuous releases for live projects and use Amazon Cloud infrastructure to handle automation agents.
- Have familiarity with the process of debugging the source code of Selenium WebDriver.
Top Selenium Interview Questions and Answers for a Selenium Tester
Usually, the difficulty of questions asked during a Selenium interview depends upon the candidate’s level of experience. Therefore, interview questions asked from freshers and experienced Selenium testers vary.
In the following sections, we talk about the fundamental selenium testing questions first, and then we discuss Selenium interview questions for freshers and experienced individuals separately.
Basic Automation Testing Questions
As Selenium is an automation testing tool, an interviewer is most likely to ask about automation testing first. Below are a few commonly asked questions about automation testing:
1. What is Automation Testing?
Answer: Automation testing, also known as test automation, is a software testing approach that uses readily available tools to create test scripts and execute the automated test suite without any manual intervention. The principal goal of automation testing is to run the automated test suite and compare the resulting outcomes with the expected ones.
Several automation testing tools, like Selenium, are available today. However, it entirely depends on testers to choose the automation tool for generating test scripts and implementing them. Moreover, automation testing is far better and more efficient than manual testing.
2. Explain the Advantages of Automating Testing.
Answer: The key benefits of automation testing are:
- As there is no human intervention in automation testing, the outcomes obtained after implementing the entire test suite are accurate and error-free.
- It enables testers to reuse the code. The code, once developed, can be reused again for many projects. Also, the effort to maintain the code is incredibly low.
- One of the substantial pros of automation testing is that it is time-saving.
- Generating the test result report in automation testing is way easier than in manual testing. When testers implement test scripts, the result report is generated automatically.
- Automation testing supports the integration of GitHub and Jenkins.
- As automation testing is time-saving, it helps the Quality Assurance team to deliver the product quickly. It facilitates frequent releases, instant modifications, and faster delivery.
- Automation testing enables the QA team to generate and run a large number of test cases. Hence, it ensures improved test coverage.
3. What is the latest version of Selenium?
Answer: The latest version of selenium is Selenium 4.0. 0 Alpha 5, released in March of 2020.
4. When do you automate the test?
Answer: Automating a test is essential in four major circumstances that are:
- If there are repetitive tasks.
- For Sanity and Smoke tests.
- For regression test cases.
- If a test has multiple data sets.
However, it is not feasible to automate a test when a software product under test changes regularly. In addition, one-time test cases and Adhoc-Random testing are two other reasons for not automating a test.
5. State the steps involved in performing automation testing.
Answer: Steps required to carry out automation testing are:
- The first step in automation testing is to decide the tool depending upon the software under test.
- Identifying all the application’s areas where we need to perform automation testing. Also, it’s important to recognize all the repetitive tasks related to testing.
- The next step is to plan an automation testing strategy and generate an automated test suite.
- The implementation of automated test cases is the fourth step.
- Finally, we need to verify whether new features added to a software product behave as expected. In addition, we need to check and maintain newly added test scripts in the test suite. Therefore, the final phase is referred to as Test Automation Maintenance Approach.
6. What are some common tools to carry out automation testing?
Answer: Some widely used and popular tools for automation testing are:
Selenium Interview Questions for Freshers
Let us now discuss the most common Selenium testing interview questions for freshers.
7. What is Selenium?
Answer: It is the most admired and widely utilized tool to implement automation testing. However, it is not a single tool; instead, it is a pack of multiple tools. In addition, Selenium enables testers to implement function testing without requiring knowledge of test scripting language.
Selenium has its separate and dedicated language, called Selenese. Also, it allows users to develop test cases in various programming languages, such as Python, Ruby, C#, Java, PHP, etc.
Selenium consists of four different tools that are as follows:
- Selenium WebDriver
Selenium WebDriver runs a browser using Selenium Server on a local or a remote machine the same way a user would do it manually. Thus, it helps users to develop powerful and browser-based test cases. In addition, it supports the distribution of the generated test scripts across various platforms.
- Selenium IDE
It is a robust tool in Selenium that enables users to record and playback test automation. The Quality Assurance team uses Selenium IDE to develop scripts for exploratory testing and generate bug reproduction scripts.
- Selenium Grid
Testers use Selenium Grid to implement scripts developed using Selenium WebDriver on multiple remote machines. Therefore, it becomes possible to run various tests simultaneously, which in turn reduces the test execution time.
- Selenium Remote Control (RC)
8. Why should testers pick the Selenium testing tool for automation testing?
Answer: Selenium is one of the most robust tools used extensively to carry out automation testing. Moreover, it is a record and playback tool that offers a broad spectrum of benefits. The reasons why testers use selenium for automation testing are stated below:
- Selenium is open-source and free to use.
- Though Selenium has its unique language, Selenese, it is not limited to it. It also opens its doors for other programming languages, including Python, Perl, Ruby, Java, PHP, and C#.
- It is compatible with major operating systems, like Linux, macOS, and Windows.
- Selenium is compatible with all major browsers, including Chrome, Safari, Edge, and Opera.
- It can seamlessly integrate with other frameworks, such as Maven, TestNG, Jenkins, etc.
- Selenium has an interactive interface, allowing users to generate test scripts seamlessly.
- Simultaneous execution of tests is possible on multiple machines using Selenium Grid.
9. Highlight the dissimilarities between Selenium 2.0 and 3.0.
Answer: Selenium 2.0 involves the integration of Selenium Remote Control (RC) and WebDriver. On the contrary, Selenium 3.0 does not have Selenium RC but supports it indirectly via a back-end WebDriver. Therefore, the major dissimilarity between the two versions is that 2.0 involves Selenium RC, whereas 3.0 does not. Some other notable differences between Selenium 2.0 and 3.0 are:
|Selenium 2.0||Selenium 3.0|
|Selenium 2.0 involves the WebDriver API that supports Selenium RC technology and API.||There is no WebDriver API in Selenium 3.0.|
|It performs mobile automation using iPhone Driver for iPhones and AndroidDriver for Android phones.||It carries out mobile automation using a tool called Appium.|
|Selenium 2.0 requires Java 1.8 or earlier versions.||Selenium 3.0 requires Java versions above 1.8.|
10. Explain Selenese.
Answer: Selenium’s IDE has its dedicated language for creating test scripts, which is known as Selenese. Alternatively, we can say that Selenese is a collection of commands, allowing users to implement test scripts in Selenium IDE.
For instance, one of the Selenium commands is open (URL). We need to pass the specific URL as a parameter to the command. The open (URL) command will open the URL in the browser.
Assertions, Actions, and Accessors are three different Selenese. However, each of these Selenese is used to perform specific activities. Furthermore, Selenium commands support four distinct parameters, that are:
Instead of binding Selenium to localhost, we can bind it to a particular IP address.
- Port Number
We can connect Frid Hub with Selenium tests specifying the TCP/IP port number in Selenium commands.
We can specify the name of the browser which we need to implement Selenium test scripts.
The Selenium test cases are triggered by an application URL.
11. Explain the Relative Path and Absolute Path.
Answer: Absolute Path in Selenium is a path that begins with ‘/.’ It is defined as an entire path starting from the root to the element that we need to identify. When writing the absolute path, one should be extremely careful. Any change in the attributes starting from the root node to the desired element will result in an invalid absolute path. An example of the absolute path is /html.body/div/td/input.
The relative path is opposite to the absolute path, as it does not start with the root node. Instead, it begins with an intermediate node and reaches the desired element. The relative path begins with ‘//.’ An example of the relative path is //input/example[@id=name].
The relative path is shorter and easier to maintain as compared to the absolute path.
12. What are Verify and Assert statements?
Answer: The Assert statement in Selenium is used to check if the desired element is present on the webpage or not. If a specific test case does not satisfy the Assert condition, it fails. As a result, the QA team aborts the implementation of the remaining test scripts. Thus, we can view the outcome of the test execution without invoking any method.
The Verify statement is used only to check if the given condition is true or false. As a result, all test scripts present in the test suite are implemented, even though assert conditions are not satisfied. The test execution result is produced after the completion of all test cases. Therefore, errors come into light after the complete implementation of the test suite. To view the result of test execution, we need to invoke the AssertAll() method.
13. What are the dissimilarities between findElements() and findElement() functions?
Answer: The findElement() function distinctively finds a single web element present on the web page. On the other hand, the findElements() method identifies all web elements on the given web page. Some differences between these two functions are:
- findElement() returns the first matching web element from multiple elements discovered. On the contrary, findElements() returns a set of web elements.
- If there is no matching element found, findElement() returns a statement ‘NoSuchElementException.’ Conversely, findElements() returns an empty list.
14. Explain the terms – Fluent Wait, Explicit Wait, and Implicit Wait.
It is used to instruct the web driver to wait for a particular time period to find the desired web element before it results in an exception – ‘NoSuchElementException.’ The default time period is set to zero. In the implicit wait, the web driver goes through all web elements and searches for a specific one in the given time.
It instructs the web driver to wait for the expected or specific conditions before resulting in an exception – ‘ElementNotVisibleException.’ However, the explicit wait is used only for particular web elements. It is way more powerful than the implicit wait.
It specifies the maximal time span instructing the web driver to wait. In addition, it states the frequency at which the condition should be examined prior to an exception – ‘ElementNotVisibleException.’ Here, frequency implies the number of times the condition is to be checked at regular time intervals.
15. Explain driver.quit() and driver.close() functions.
Answer: The driver.quit() command helps users to close all open windows in a browser, whereas the driver.close() function closes the current window in a browser.
16. What test types does Selenium support?
Answer: Testers use Selenium to test web-based software. Selenium supports functional and regression test types.
17. State different ways to identify an element in a web page using Selenium.
Answer: We can identify elements in a web page using several parameters, such as Name, Tag, ID, CSS, XPath, Linktext, Attribute, or Partiallink Text.
18. Define X-Path.
Answer: The term X-Path refers to a path used to identify elements in the web page. In addition, we can find the desired element’s location on the web page using X-Path. Also, it allows testers to traverse through the webpage’s HTML structure.
19. What are the significant challenges with Selenium?
Answer: The main challenges associated with Selenium are:
- It only supports the testing of web applications.
- There is no scope for Bitmap comparison in Selenium.
- Selenium does not have any vendor support similar to tools like QTP.
- It becomes extremely challenging to maintain objects.
- Selenium requires testers to use third-party applications for reporting.
20. Can Selenium manage windows-based pop-ups? If yes, how?
Answer: No, Selenium cannot manage windows-based pop-ups, as it is an automation tool used for testing only web-based software products. However, the integration of other third-party applications can enable Selenium to manage windows-based pop-ups.
21. Explain different types of frameworks.
Answer: There are five different kinds of frameworks:
This framework involves a tabular file or an external file, like XML, Excel, etc., for storing input data and the predicted output data.
As its name suggests, the keyword-driven framework uses keywords and data tables to describe actions that testers need to perform on a software product.
- Module-based testing
In module-based testing, testers divide a software product under test into several sections or modules. After splitting a software product’s source code, they generate test cases for each module and merge them to create larger tests.
- Behavior-driven testing
The behavior-driven testing framework is entirely dependent on the system’s behavior and majorly concentrates on tests to be executed. In addition, testers generate test cases in the English language that even non-technical people can understand easily.
- Hybrid testing
It is the combination of module-driven, data-driven, and keyword-driven testing frameworks.
22. State dissimilarities between getWindowHandle() and getWindowHandles() methods.
Answer: Each window created in a browser is assigned a unique identifier called window handle.
The getWindowHandle() method is used to get the current window or tab’s window handle. A String is the return type of the getWindowHandle() method. On the other hand, getWindowHandles() is used to get all windows’ or tabs’ window handles. Furthermore, Set<String> is the return type of getWindowHandles().
23. Explain sleep() and setSpeed() functions.
Answer: When we wish to delay the test execution speed, we use setSpeed and sleep() methods.
The setSpeed() function in Selenium sets the delay in the execution of each Selenium command. By default, the delay period in the setSpeed() function is zero. Furthermore, the thread.sleep() function terminates the implementation of the current thread for a specific time. It accepts the input in the Integer data type.
Selenium Interview Questions for Experienced Testers
The Selenium interview questions for experienced testers are way more challenging than beginners. Below are some of the most frequently asked advanced-level Selenium interview questions along with their answers:
24. Explain the steps for debugging tests using Selenium IDE.
Answer: Debugging helps testers find and fix bugs and errors in the source code. In Selenium, debugging can be done in four simple steps that are as follows:
- Firstly, we need to add the breakpoints in the source code where we need to perform debugging.
- After setting breakpoints, we need to execute the code in debug mode.
- Once the code starts debugging, the execution of the code terminates at the first breakpoint we added in the source code.
- After running the code in debug mode and checking the code’s behavior at all the breakpoints, we need to terminate the code execution in the debug mode.
25. Explain regular expressions and their implementation in Selenium.
Answer: One of the efficient ways for enhancing Selenium WebDriver’s tests is using regular expressions. Regular expressions are referred to as search patterns. However, a unique and special text string is used to represent regular expressions in Selenium.
We can use regular expressions when we need to retrieve the text from the web element’s text. Moreover, if we need to check that the value or a URL matches the pattern, we use regular expressions.
We can add the word ‘Regexp’ as a prefix to any text in Selenium to make it a regular expression.
26. How will you manage multiple windows using Selenium?
Answer: It is possible for us to work with multiple windows in Selenium by using the selectWindow() function. This function helps to switch among all open windows. The selectWindow() function takes the window identifier as its parameter. Moreover, the title of windows will be the primary factor to distinguish among all.
27. Which command will you use to retrieve a message in the alert box?
Answer: The command used to retrieve a message from the alert box is storeAlert(). The storeAlert() command in Selenium reads the text message from the alert pop-up. Then, it stores this message in a variable. After holding a message in a variable, the command closes the alert pop-up.
28. What is the use of Selenium RC, and what are its benefits?
Answer: Selenium RC is more robust than IDE in terms of language and browser support. However, as Selenium IDE only supports the HTML language, it does not aid many other functionalities, such as conditional statements, iterations, test case result generation, etc. Therefore, to use other programming languages in Selenium, Selenium RC is used.
Below are some of the main pros of Selenium RC:
- It can seamlessly manage Ajax elements and dynamic objects.
- Selenium RC supports reading the data from and writing the data to various file formats, like .xlsx, .txt, etc.
- We can improve an application’s performance by using two functionalities – Iterations and Conditional Statements.
- Finally, we can use any programming language with Selenium.
29. Explain breakpoints and start points.
Answer: A Breakpoint in Selenium is a point where it instructs Selenium IDE to suspend the execution of test scripts. The principle aim to use breakpoints in the source code is to verify whether it is working correctly according to the expectations. In addition, breakpoints are more helpful in debugging the code.
A Start point in a Selenium is a point where the execution of test scripts should start. Like breakpoints, start points are also beneficial in debugging. Start points are used when we need to resume the test execution from the middle of the code or after using breakpoints.
30. Why is Selenium used more widely than QTP?
Answer: The below table will help you understand why Selenium is more helpful and efficient than QTP.
|Selenium is compatible with almost all browsers. It supports Chrome, Internet Explorer, Edge, and many others.||QTP is limited to working with only three browsers – Internet Explorer, Chrome, and Firefox.|
|We can run Selenium on any operating system.||QTP is compatible with only Windows systems.|
|Strong support for several programming languages, like Java, Perl, C#, etc.||QTP only supports the VBScript language.|
|Selenium is not a proprietary tool.||QTP is a licensed and commercial tool.|
|The test cases execution in Selenium requires fewer resources.||The resources required in QTP while executing test cases are higher.|
31. Explain different exceptions in Selenium WebDriver.
Answer: Below is some typical exceptions in Selenium:
This exception occurs when the web page does not include a specific element from the given attribute set.
This exception occurs when a specific element is deleted and no longer present in the Document Object Model.
When a specific operation is not completed within the given time, the TimeOutException occurs.
This exception occurs when a particular element is invisible on the web page but is present in the Document Object Model.
Selenium has made it easier for organizations to develop and deliver high-quality web applications to end-users. However, Selenium performs not only testing tasks but also web-based administration activities. In addition, it is not licensed and is free to use. Therefore, many companies use Selenium and as a result, they are in a constant search for talented and knowledgeable Selenium testers.
In this article, we have listed the most popular Selenium interview questions. Also, we have answered each question in detail so that you can impress the interviewers and crack the interview.
People are also reading:
- What is Automation Testing?
- What is Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC)?
- What is Integration Testing?
- Automated Browser Testing with Edge and Selenium in Python
- How to Automate Login Using Selenium in Python?
- Selenium IDE
- What is SDLC?
- 30 Best SQL Server Interview Questions with Answers
- Best REST API Interview Questions and Answers