Python is one of the most popular languages in the programming industry. It is a high-level interpreted programming language that follows the concepts of object-oriented programming. The availability of a myriad of robust libraries and frameworks is one of the main reasons for the extensive popularity of Python among the computer science community.
If you compare Python with other programming languages, you will find that it is the most straightforward language of all. The simple syntax of Python makes it a preferable choice among programmers. Also, it supports several libraries and frameworks that allow programmers to code fast and develop projects in less time.
This blog post aims to make you familiar with the most popular Python frameworks that you can use to speed up the development process and make yourself more efficient. But before we list down the best Python frameworks, let us briefly introduce you to web frameworks, Python web frameworks, and types of Python web frameworks.
What are Web Frameworks?
There are lots of definitions available on the internet about a web framework, but most of them are confusing because they use jargon or technical terms. This could make it difficult for a beginner to understand what actually a web framework is.
In simple terms, a web framework is defined as a collection of libraries (predefined code) and APIs (Application Program Interfaces) that call a piece of code to perform a specific task. Web frameworks are built on specific programming languages. Therefore, instead of writing code from scratch to create a web application, we use web frameworks.
There are many popular frameworks in the market, such as Laravel (PHP framework), Spring ( Java Web-Framework) , Ruby-on-Rails (Ruby framework), and Django (Python Framework).
Python Web Frameworks
Python is well known for its robust web frameworks. It offers many frameworks that can meet the requirements of your projects. Whether you want to make a simple blog application or a complex eCommerce website, there are various Python frameworks to help you develop projects quickly and with relative ease. If you are thinking of learning a Python framework in 2022, we have provided the best ones to choose from.
Types of Python Web Frameworks
1. Full-Stack Python Web Frameworks
A full-stack web framework is a framework that supports the development of front-end interfaces, back-end services, and databases. These frameworks work on architectures like Model View Controller (MVC) or Model View Template (MVT) and use Object Relational Mapping (ORM) for Databases. Here, the developer does not need to depend on other libraries and frameworks.
2. Non-Full Stack Python Web Frameworks
In non-full stack frameworks, the developer does not find many auxiliary features like that in full-stack frameworks. Here, the framework depends on other libraries for complete functionality.
Best Python Web Frameworks
Django is the most powerful and popular Python framework. With more than 53k stars on GitHub, Django is the second most starred framework. It is built on Python and comes with many built-in features. Django is a full-stack framework that supports built-in authentication and all the popular SQL databases.
Using this framework, we can create dynamic, powerful, and secure web applications. URL routing, user authentication, templating, and inbuilt database support are the main features of Django. It was first released in 2005, and since then, it has been an open-source project.
In the past few years, due to the popularity of Python, developers started showing interest in Django. Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) is another key feature of Django. With this feature, we can store and retrieve application data from different SQL databases, such as MySQL, Oracle, SQLite, and PostgreSQL.
With Django, we can build any web application, small or big. However, Django is primarily recommended for big projects. Although the learning curve of Django is quite steep, its official documentation makes it easy to get started with Django.
- ORM (Object-Relation Mapper).
- Tight integration between components.
- Automatic admin interface.
- Well-managed documentation.
- Regular updates.
- Second most popular web framework.
- Multi-lingual support.
Flask is a micro web framework and the second most popular Python web framework. Many web developers suggest learning Flask before Django. On GitHub, Flask has more than 52K stars, which are less than Django but still shows the popularity of Flask among Python developers.
While Flask does not provide as many features as Django, Python developers like to create web applications with Flask because of its flexibility and easy-to-learn characteristics. Flask is highly recommended for simple and small projects, and because of its lightweight build, it is faster than Django. Unlike Django, Flask provides developers more control over libraries' dependencies of the web application.
- It has a development server and debugger.
- Integrated support for unit testing.
- Uses Jinja templating.
- Well-written documentation.
- Easy to learn.
- Google app engine compatibility.
CherryPy is a well-known Python framework that allows its developers to create web applications by following the concepts of object-oriented programming. Every operating system that supports Python can run CherryPy. It comes with an in-built plugin system and supports profiling, decoding, authentication, static content processing, and testing. Moreover, it is also capable of running multiple HTTP servers simultaneously.
- A reliable, HTTP/1.1-compliant, WSGI thread-pooled web server.
- Can run multiple HTTP servers at once.
- It has a powerful configuration system.
- Flexible plugin system.
- Encoding tools.
- Built-in tools for session authentication.
- It supports profiling, coverage, and testing.
Pyramid is another Python full-stack framework. Although it is not much popular, it is as powerful as Django. This Python web framework was designed so that the developers could develop web applications with relative ease. It has more than 3K stars on GitHub, and an active team of developers is continuously managing and updating this framework.
With Pyramid, we can build simple as well as complex web applications. As a direct comparison with Django, Pyramid provides better URL generation, API development, and testing capabilities.
- Single module application.
- Authentication script.
- View predicate.
- URL generation.
- Support for both imperative and declarative configurations.
- HTTP caching.
- Built-in support for session storage.
- Inbuilt testing and well-written documentation.
- Easy to learn.
Bottle is a very lightweight and WSGI -compliant microweb framework written in Python. Initially, it was designed for API development but later was introduced as a micro web framework. It is a single-module web framework and does not provide that many features. The Python web framework is easy to learn and is only recommended for single-page web applications or applications with less than 500 lines of code.
- It is supported by both Python versions 2 and 3.
- It can be used to build single-page web applications.
- Convenient access to form data, file upload, cookies, headers, and other HTTP-related metadata.
- It has a built-in HTTP development server.
- It supports paste, fapws3, Bjoern, gae, cherrypy, or any other WSGI-capable HTTP server.
It is one of the most popular full-stack Python web frameworks. It was developed by Kevin Dangoor and Mark Ramm in 2005 as an open-source project. Therefore, anyone can download it for free and use it in their projects. TurboGears can be used to build flexible and data-driven dynamic web applications. TurboGears comes with several WSGI components such as SQLAlchemy, Genshi, WebOb, and Repoze that allow TurboGears to have a built-in ORM. It follows the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture.
This is unlike Django, which follows the Model-View-Template architecture. It also comes with a built-in gearbox tool kit that allows TurboGears-based web applications to connect with popular WSGI-compatible web servers such as Apache and Nginx .
- It supports SQL as well as NoSQL databases.
- It follows the MVC architecture.
- You can easily access the database through SQL Object and SQLAlchemy.
- Built on a large number of libraries.
- Front-facing WSGI-based server.
- Built-in form-encoded.
Web2py is an open-source framework. Thus, you can download and use it for free. By using this powerful Python full-stack web framework, we can build dynamic web applications. With Web2Py, developers do not have to write code for common development tasks.
For example, Web2Py offers a built-in form class, and a developer does not need to write code from scratch to add forms to their application. One major downside of the Web2py framework is that it is only designed for teaching and educational purposes. That's why it is not used in many real-world projects.
- Easy to learn and use.
- It follows the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture.
- It supports multiple protocols such as HTML/XML, RSS/ATOM, RTF, PDF, JSON, AJAX, XML-RPC, CSV, REST, WIKI, Flash/AMF, and Linked Data (RDF).
- Web2Py supports SQLite, PostgreSQL, MySQL, MSSQL, FireBird, Sybase, Oracle, IBM DB2, Informix, Ingres, MongoDB, and Google App Engine.
- High data security.
- Error tracing.
Sanic is an open-source asynchronous Python framework, and it has more than 14K stars on GitHub. It is designed for handling asynchronous HTTP responses. It aims to deliver fast performance. Sanic is like the Flask framework, and it works on Python 3.5 and later versions. Compared to Flask, Sanic is faster. Although it provides tremendous speed along with features like routing, cookies, versioning, class-based view, and sockets, Sanic does not offer any database and templating support, which is a major setback.
- It is a fast and lightweight web framework.
- Sanic can handle asynchronous HTTP requests.
- It uses MagicStack's proprietary uvloop.
Tornado is an open-source asynchronous Python web framework, and it has more than 19K GitHub starts. It was developed at FriendFeed , which is now owned by Facebook. One of the key features of Torando is that it uses a non-blocking HTTP network I/O that can handle more than 1,000 connections at a single time. Tornado also comes with common framework features such as user authentication, authorization, and a template engine.
- Inbuilt authentication.
- Non-blocking HTTP.
- High performance.
- Third-party authentication and authorization schemes (Google OpenID/OAuth, Facebook Login, Yahoo BBAuth, FriendFeed OpenID/OAuth, Twitter OAuth).
CubicWeb is one of the most underrated Python web frameworks. It was initially developed in 2001 but made open source in 2008. The initial release of the CubicWeb framework had many bugs and trackers, leading to a downfall and no usage in projects. It is a data-driven framework that allows developers to create customized views based on the defined data models. CubicWeb also comes with many built-in features for reusable components like comments, messages, emails, and files.
- It supports OWL and RDF.
- Provides multi-sources like RQL, SQL, LDAP, Subversion, and Mercurial.
- Ease data query with Relationship Query Language(RQL).
- Provide migration tools.
That's the end of our article on the best Python web frameworks. We have listed various Python frameworks according to their popularity and usage. If you want to work with Python as a back-end developer, then learning one of the Python frameworks listed above can be a great idea. Django and Flask are currently the most popular Python web frameworks. However, CherryPy has the potential to become the next big Python framework.
Still, it would take two to three more years for CherryPy to shine like Django and Flask . If you are thinking of learning Django, we would suggest learning Flask first because it is easy to learn. Moreover, working with Flask would give you a good idea of how a web framework works.
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