Python is one of the most popular languages of 2020 and 2021. It is a high-level interpreted programming language that follows the concepts of Object-Oriented Programming. The myriad and robust libraries & frameworks of Python are the main reasons for its popularity amongst the computer science community. If you go with the comparison of Python with other languages, you will find that it is the most straightforward language of all. The simple syntax of Python makes it famous among the community of coders. It supports lots of libraries and frameworks that allow its developer to code fast with ease.
What are Web Frameworks?
There are lots of definitions available on the internet on “what is a framework?” but most of those are confusing with the jargon of technical terms, which could be difficult for a beginner to understand that what actually a web Framework is. In simple term web frameworks are defined as a collection of libraries (predefined code) and API (Application Program Interfaces) which calls your code and perform the task.
Web-frameworks are built on specific programming languages, so instead of writing code from scratch to create a web application, we use the web framework. There are many popular frameworks in the market such as the Laravel PHP framework, Spring Java Web-Framework, ruby-on-rails Ruby framework, and Django Python Framework.
Python Web Frameworks
Python is well known for its robust web-frameworks, it has many frameworks that can suit your web-project. Whether you want to make a simple blog application or a complex E-Commerce site, with the Python framework you can write a secure back-end script. If you are thinking of learning a python framework in 2021, and looking for the various options, we have provided the top one you can opt from.
People Also Read: The Best way to learn python
Types of Python Web Frameworks
1. Full Stack Python Web Frameworks
Full Stack Web Framework is a framework that supports the development of front end interface, back-end services, and databases. These frameworks work on Architectures like Model View Controler (MVC) or Model View Template (MVT) and use Object Relational Mapping (ORM) for DataBases. Here the developer does not need to depend on other libraries and frameworks.
2. Non-Full Stack Python Web frameworks
In the Non-Full Stack frameworks, the developer does not find many axillaries features like Full-Stack Frameworks. Here the framework depends on other libraries for the complete functionality.
Python Best Web-Frameworks 2020-21
Django is the most powerful and popular Python Framework. With more than 53k stars on GitHub Django is the second most stared framework. It is built on Python, and comes with many built-in features. It is a full stack-framework, that supports built-in authentication and all the popular SQL databases. Using this framework we can create dynamic, powerful, and secure web applications.
URL routing, User Authentication, Templating, and inbuilt DataBase support, are the main features of Django.
Django was first released in 2005 and since then it is an open-source project, in past few years due to the popularity of Python, developers started showing interest in Django.
Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) is one of the main features of Django. With this feature, we can have some code for different SQL Databases such as MySQL, Oracle, SQLite, and PostgreSQL.
However with Django, we can build any web-application small or big, but Django is highly recommended for big projects. Although the learning curve of Django is also very steep, it’s official documentation makes it less tedious and easy.
Some Important Features of Python Django Framework
- ORM (Object-Relation Mapper).
- Tight Integration Between Component.
- Automatic Admin Interface.
- Well managed Documentation.
- Regular Updates.
- Overall Second most popular web-framework.
- Multi-lingual support
Flask is a micro web framework and the second most popular Python web framework. Many web-developers suggest learning Flask before Django. On GitHub flask has more than 52K stars which are not approximately equal to Django, this shows the popularity of Flask amongst Python developers. However Flask does not provide as many features as Django, but because of its flexibility and easy to learn characteristics python developers like to create web-applications on Flask.
Flask is highly recommended for simple and small projects, and because of its lightweight characteristic, it is faster and easier than Django. Unlike Django, Flask provides its developer to have more control over libraries’ dependencies of the web-application.
Some Important Features Python Flask Framework
- It has a development server and debugger.
- Integrated support for unit testing
- Uses Jinja templating
- Well-written documentation
- Easy to learn
- Google App engine compatibility
CherryPy is a well-known Python framework, which allows its developers to create web-application by following the concepts of Object-Orientation Programming. Every Operating System that supports Python, CherryPy can run on it. It comes with an in-built plugin-system, profiling, decoding, authentication, static content processing, and testing. And it is also capable of running multiple HTTP servers simultaneously.
Some Important Features of CherryPy
- A reliable, HTTP/1.1-compliant, WSGI thread-pooled web server.
- Can run multiple HTTP servers at once.
- It has a powerful configuration system.
- Flexible plugin system
- Encoding tools
- Sessions authentication build-in tools
- It supports profiling, coverage, and testing.
Pyramid is another Python full-stack framework, although it is not much popular, yet it is as powerful as Django. Pyramid was designed so the developers could make web-applications with less complexity. Pyramid has more than 3K stars on GitHub, and an active team of Developers is continuously managing and updating this framework. With Pyramid, we can build big as well as small web-applications. As a direct comparison with Django, Pyramid provides better URL generation, API Development, Testing, and flexible Extensions.
Some Important Features of Python Pyramid Framework
- Single Module Application
- Authentication Script
- View predicate
- URL Generation
- Support for both imperative and declarative configurations.
- Built-in support for session storage
- Inbuilt Testing and well-written documentation.
- Easy to Learn
Bottle is a very lightweighted and WSGI micro web-framework written in Python. Initially, it was designed for API development but later introduces as a micro-web framework. It is a single module web-framework and does not provide that many features. It is easy to learn and only recommended for single page web-applications or application with less than 500 lines of code.
Some main features of Python Bottle Framework
- It is supported by both Python versions 2 and 3.
- It can be used to build single-page web applications.
- Convenient access to form data, file Upload, cookies, headers, and other HTTP-relates metadata.
- It has a built-in HTTP development server.
- It supports paste, fapws3, Bjoern, gae, cherrypy or any other WSGI capable HTTP server.
TurboGears is one of the most popular full-stack Python Web Frameworks. It is developed by Kevin Dangoor and Mark Ramm in 2005 as an open-source project. So anyone can download it for free and use in their projects. TurboGears can be used to build flexible and data-driven dynamic web-applications.
TurboGears comes with several WSGI components such as SQLALchemy, Genshi, WebOb, and Repoze, which allow TurboGears to have a built ORM. It follows the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture, unlike Django which follows Model-View-Template architecture. TurboGears also comes with a builtin Gearbox tool kit which allows TurboGears bases web-application connect with popular WSGI-compatible web servers such as Apache and Nginx.
Some Important Features of Python TurboGear Framework
- It supports Multi-Database SQL as well as NoSQL.
- It follows the MVC Architecture.
- Easily access database because through SQL Object and SQlAlchemy
- Built on a large number of libraries
- Front-Facing WSGI-based server
- Built-in Form-Encoded.
Web2py is an open-source framework, so everyone is free to download and use it. Using this powerful Python full-stack web framework we can build Dynamic web-applications with minimal complexities. It comes with many built-in features so the developer does not have to write code for common development tasks. For example, Web2Py offers a built-in form class, so the developer does not need to write code for form from scratch. It is only designed for teaching and educational purposes, that’s why it is not used in many real-world projects.
Some Important Features of Python web2py Framework
- Easy to run
- It follows Model-View-Controller (MVC) Architecture.
- It speaks multiple protocols such as HTML/XML, RSS/ATOM, RTF, PDF, JSON, AJAX, XML-RPC, CSV, REST, WIKI, Flash/AMF, and Linked Data (RDF).
- It supports SQLite, PostgreSQL, MySQL, MSSQL, FireBird, Sybase, Oracle, IBM DB2, Informix, Ingres, MongoDB, and Google App Engine.
- Data security
- Error tracing
Sanic is an open-source asynchronous Python Framework and it has more than 14K stars on GitHub. It is designed for handling asynchronous HTTP responses, for better and fast performance. It is like a flask framework and it works on python’s 3.5+ versions. As compare to Flask, Sanic is quite fast. Although it provides tremendous speed along with features like routing, cookies, versioning, class-based view, and sockets, but it does not offer any Database and templating, which is a major setback.
Some Important Features of Python Sanic Framework
- It is a Fast and light Web-Framework.
- It can handle asynchronous HTTP requests
- It uses MagicStack’s proprietary uvloop.
Tornado is an Open source asynchronous Python web framework, and it has more than 19K GitHub starts. It was developed at FriendFreed, which is now owned by Facebook. One of the features of Torando is that it uses a non-blocking HTTP network I/O., that can handle more than 1000 connections at a single time.
Tornado also comes with common framework features such as user authentication and authorization, and template engine.
Some common Features of Tornado
- Inbuilt authentication
- Non-Blocking HTTP
- High performance
- Third-party authentication and authorization schemes (Google OpenID/OAuth, Facebook Login, Yahoo BBAuth, FriendFeed OpenID/OAuth, Twitter OAuth)
Cubicweb is one of the most underrated Python web-framework. It is initially developed in 2001, but open-sourced in 2008. The initial release of cubicweb framework had many bugs and trackers, leading to a downfall and no usages in projects. It is a Data-driven Framework, which allows its developer to create customized views based on the defined Data Models. It also comes with many built-in features for reusable components like comments, messages, email, and files.
Some common Features of CubicWeb
- It supports OWL and RDF.
- Provides Multi sources like RQL, SQL, LDAP, Subversion, and Mercurial
- Ease data query with Relationship Query Language(RQL)
- Provide migration tools.
With this, we have reached the end of our article on 2021 Best Python Web-Frameworks. We have listed all the Frameworks according to their popularity and usages. If you seek a web development career as a back-end developer, then one of these Python frameworks can help you. Right now, Django and Flask are ruling the current market of Python web-framework, CherryPy is showing some potential, but yet it would take two to three more years for CherryPy to shine like Django and Flask. If you are thinking of learning Django, we would suggest learning Flask first because it is straightforward to learn Flask, and it gives you an idea about how Framework works.
You may be also interested in: