22 Top Programming Languages to Learn in 2022

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22 Top Programming Languages to Learn in 2022

Vinay Khatri
Last updated on June 12, 2022

    Programming languages help to develop software. A programming language helps you to give instructions to a machine so that the machine can perform tasks. The world is now more focused on technology. Right now, we are surrounded by different technologies and gadgets.

    At the basic level, programming is what enables different technologies. But the question to ask is, "What are the different programming languages responsible for giving instructions to machines?"

    Here in this article, we discuss the top 22 programming languages to start your coding and programming journey in 2022.

    Introduction to Programming Languages

    What is Programming?

    A programming language is a tool to tell the computer systems - via instructions - what to perform and how to perform. It’s the medium of communication with the computer system. In simple words, the programming language is the language of the computer.

    There are several programming languages available in the market, and each one has its own set of grammatical rules, which is known as its syntax. Different programming languages serve different purposes, and every programming language comes with specific features.

    Although the syntax of every high-level programming language is different on the surface, they all share the same underlying concepts.

    Importance of Programming Languages

    Importance of programming languages

    In the current generation of technology, nothing is possible without a programming language. Here are some important reasons to learn to program:

    • Programming languages are essential to interact with machines and computers.
    • Programming helps to automate tasks.
    • To harness the power of computing for all humans.
    • To create more intelligent technologies and machines.

    22 Top Programming Languages in 2022

    As technology is growing and changing rapidly, new programming languages are also taking seeing the light of day and replacing the old ones. The competition is increasing at a high-speed day by day. To stay in the race for programming, developers need to stay updated with the latest trends in programming and the knowledge of top programming languages.

    In this article, we will discuss the top 22 programming languages in 2022 and beyond. We will provide a succinct introduction of each programming language along with an example, its features, applications, and job prospects.

    So, let’s start our list with the most beginner-friendly programming language as of yet, Python:

    1. Python

    Python Programming Languages

    Python is the most popular programming language of 2022. It is a high-level, general-purpose programming language with support for many useful libraries and web frameworks. Python is best for beginners as its syntax is very simple and almost like English.

    This popular programming language finds use in web development, application development, mobile app development, AI, data science, and so on. Popular Python web frameworks include Django, Flask, TurboGears , and Web2Py .

    Mozilla, Instagram, and Spotify are examples of websites developed with Django. Python also has packages like NumPy and SciPy that are mainly used in scientific computing, engineering, and mathematics.

    Python Example

    # To add two numbers
    num1 = 1.5
    num2 = 6.3
    # Add two numbers
    sum = float(num1) + float(num2)
    # Display the sum
    print('The sum of {0} and {1} is {2}'.format(num1, num2, sum))

    Output:

    The sum of 1.5 and 6.3 is 7.8

    Python Features

    Let’s discuss some most important features of Python, which justify its popularity among developers:

    • The first and most crucial feature of python is its low learning curve. Python is considered the most accessible programming language and an ideal language for beginners.
    • It has a beautiful syntax, and unlike other programming languages, you do not have to care about semi-colons and brackets to terminate a statement or expression in Python.
    • It is a cross-platform and open-source programming language so that you do not have to make any changes in the source code when you want to run it on various platforms.
    • Python is an interpreted programming language , which means it uses an interpreter to execute the code. An interpreter reads the code line by line and simultaneously executes it.
    • It supports the object-oriented programming paradigm and thus, supports the concepts of classes and objects.
    • It has a large number of open-source libraries, which make it the most versatile programming language. Except for mobile development, Python has libraries for almost all fields of programming.
    • Python has a proactive community spread across the globe. From web development to artificial intelligence, everyone is using Python for their projects and is interested in sharing their work and helping others get on board with the popular programming language.

    Applications of Python

    Here are some of the top domains that use Python:

    • Python has many powerful web frameworks, such as Django, Flask , and Pyramid, that help to create web applications.
    • Python can also be used to build GUI desktop applications. It has many libraries and toolkits, such as Tk, Kivy, and pyqt, that can serve this purpose.
    • The programming language is famous for scientific and numerical applications in the fields of data science and AI. Python has libraries that are helpful for such projects.
    • Python can be used to build control and management testing in software development.
    • Like other high-level programming languages, Python can also be used to build console-based applications.
    • Using Python, we can even build multimedia-based applications.

    Python Job Opportunities

    Python developers are very much in demand these days. In January 2021 alone, there were 74k new jobs posted for Python developers in the USA. If we took the USA job market as a reference, the salary of a Python developer could vary from $71,557 to $110,919. Here are some significant domains that require Python developers:

    2. TypeScript

    TypeScript is yet another highly popular programming language that has gained traction in recent years. It is a new language when compared to the likes of many other well-known programming languages such as Python, C, C++, etc.

    Developed by the tech giant Microsoft, TypeScript was made available to developers for the first time in 2012. One of the most interesting facts about TypeScript is that it acts as a superscript of JavaScript. One of the key upgrades in TypeScript is that it supports static typing, whereas JavaScript is a dynamically typed language.

    All the JavaScript code is valid Typescript code, but the vice-versa does not hold true. Additionally, an individual having knowledge of JavaScript can learn TypeScript quite easily.

    TypeScript Example

    var message:string = "Hello World" 
    
    console.log(message)

    Output:

    "Hello World"

    TypeScript Features

    • It supports generic, procedural, functional, and object-oriented programming paradigms.
    • You can use TypeScript for both frontend and backend development.
    • Just like JavaScript, manipulating DOM elements is fairly easy with TypeScript.
    • TypeScript allows developers to use all the existing JavaScript frameworks and libraries.
    • It supports interfaces that allow you to define the property names that an object can have.

    Applications of TypeScript

    TypeScript is utterly suitable for web development. It facilitates the development of both client-side and server-side applications. Also, it is possible to use TypeScript for similar purposes as that of JavaScript.

    TypeScript Job Opportunities

    The increasing popularity of TypeScript is a clear indication that developers who are comfortable working with this programing language have a significant demand in the market. Most notably, Angular Developer job roles require comprehensive knowledge of TypeScript. This is so because Angular is a TypeScript-based web framework developed by Google that is popular for developing robust single-page applications (SPAs).

    3. JavaScript

    Javscript Programming

    JavaScript holds the third position on our list of the top 22 programming languages. It is a very popular scripting language, and it is almost impossible to say that there is a developer not using JavaScript in some way.

    Although JavaScript was initially developed for front-end development, it can now also be used for back-end development, especially after the advent of NodeJS. JavaScript is essential - along with HTML and CSS - for front-end development.

    Popular giants like Facebook, Gmail, Twitter, and YouTube also rely on JavaScript to design interactive front-end for their users. Popular JavaScript frameworks include Angular, React, and Vue. JavaScript has a flexible syntax and supports all major web browsers.

    JavaScript Example

    <html>
    <head>
    <title>Multiplication Table</title>
    <script type="text/javascript">
    var rows = prompt("Enter number of rows: ");
    var cols = prompt("Enter number of columns: ");
    if(rows == "" || rows == null)
    rows = 10;
    if(cols== "" || cols== null)
    cols = 10;
    createTable(rows, cols);
    function createTable(rows, cols)
    {
    var j=1;
    var output = "<table border='1' width='500' cellspacing='0'cellpadding='5'>";
    for(i=1;i<=rows;i++)
    {
    output = output + "<tr>";
    while(j<=cols)
    {
    output = output + "<td>" + i*j + "</td>";
    j = j+1;
    }
    output = output + "</tr>";
    j = 1;
    }
    output = output + "</table>";
    document.write(output);
    }
    </script>
    </head>
    <body>
    </body>
    </html>

    Output:

    Enter number of rows: 2
    Enter number of columns: 2
    
    1 2
    2 4

    JavaScript Features

    Here are some important features of JavaScript:

    • It can manipulate the DOM. For instance, using JavaScript, we can change the HTML elements on a web page and their attributes.
    • Though it is a web Scripting language, JS also supports many features of high-level programming languages, such as functions, methods, and objects.
    • It is a platform-independent language. Thus, its code can be executed on any popular web browser.
    • It has inbuilt date and time functions.
    • Form validation is one of the most powerful features of JavaScript. Rather than submitting an invalid form to the server, JavaScript can validate the form data on the client side.
    • It has many popular frameworks and libraries, which are used by big tech giants, such as Google and Facebook.

    Applications of JavaScript

    Here are some major applications of JavaScript:

    • The primary job of JavaScript is to add behavior to the web page. This makes a webpage more interactive and responsive.
    • We can create web applications using JavaScript libraries.
    • With Node.js, which is a JS runtime environment, we can create server-side applications.
    • JS can also be used to create mobile web applications.
    • Smartwatches also use JavaScript applications.
    • Many gaming development entities, such as Unity use JavaScript for game development.

    JavaScript Job Opportunities

    Web developers are high in demand, and so do the JavaScript developers, and we cannot imagine a webpage without JavaScript. After the release of Node.js, the development reach of a JS developer has been pushed from front-end development to back-end and full-stack development.

    Now, there are many organizations that completely work on JS for the client- as well as the server-side scripting. Companies like Google and Facebook are spending millions on JS projects like Angular and React rather than on hard-coded high-level programming languages.

    In the US, every month, more than 50k jobs are posted for JS developers, and the salary range varies from $57k to $144k per year. Here is the list of domains requiring JavaScript developers:

    4. Go Programming Language

    Go Programming Languages

    Go is simple to write like Python but more efficient like C++. The masterminds behind this subtle approach are Robert Griesemer, Ken Thompson, and Rob Pike.

    Developed by Google, Go can handle even the hardest computational problems. It is the advanced and modern version of C, including compiled language, statically typed, garbage collection, structural typing, and CSP-style concurrency.

    Kubernetes and Ethereum Cryptozoic Project are based on Go. Go is an emerging programming language with many desirable features and a compelling option for your next open-source project.

    Go Example

    package main
    import "fmt"
    func main() {
    var greeting = "Hello world!"
    fmt.Printf("String Length is: ")
    fmt.Println(len(greeting))
    }

    Output:

    String Length is: 12

    Go Features

    • It is supported and maintained by Google.
    • With Go, we can quickly implement a concurrent system.
    • It is simple as Python but fast as C++.
    • It supports the concept of object-oriented programming.
    • Go features a super-fast compiler.
    • It supports pointers like C++.
    • It comes with an embedded garbage collector.

    Applications of Go

    Here are some significant projects where Go can be used:

    • Google uses Go on its cloud platforms to improve the cloud infrastructure.
    • Apart from Google, many other famous cloud computing platforms such as Dropbox, Terraform, Kubernetes, and Docker are also using Go.
    • Go is also used by YouTube, SoundCloud, and Netflix to reduce the high load of media performance.

    Go Job Opportunities

    Right now, there are not too many jobs for Go developers because big tech companies only use it for some complex tasks. Nonetheless, Go is considered a language of the future. In the current scenario, Go ranks 9th in the list of most popular programming languages.

    The salary of a Go developer can vary from $4k to $93k. Following are the top domains to work for Go developers:

    • System Programming
    • Serverless Computing
    • Business Applications
    • Cloud-native Development
    • IoT

    5. Rust

    The next entry on this list of the best programming languages to learn is Rust, which is a general-purpose programming language that follows multiple paradigms. One interesting thing about Rust is that its syntax is similar to C++. However, it is more robust as it offers better memory safety with the help of a borrow checker.

    Rust is identified as a systems programming language and many developers consider it as a viable replacement for C and C++ . Along with a high-level programming language, Rust also allows programmers to do low-level memory management, which comes in handy for managing the system resources.

    You can estimate the capabilities of Rust with the fact that many popular tech giants, including Cloudflare and Dropbox, are using it in their products.

    Rust Example

    fn main() {
    
        println!("Hello World!");
    
    }

    Output:

    Hello World!

    Rust Features

    • It ensures effective memory management without the use of automated garbage collection.
    • Rust is memory safe.
    • Rust supports type inference, which means that it can automatically determine the type of expression during the code compilation.
    • It is interoperable with the C language.

    Applications of Rust

    You can use Rust to develop the following:

    • Operating systems
    • Game engines
    • Simulation engines for VR (Virtual Reality)
    • Web applications

    Rust Job Opportunities

    The applications of Rust are vast and it acts as a high-performance version of C and C++ programming languages. The demand for Rust developers in the market is increasing day by day.

    Also, there are several job openings for Rust developers in countries such as the USA and India. Also, the demand for Rust developers has been increasing in tech powerhouses like Amazon and Cloudflare.

    6. C++

    C++

    C++ started the advent of object-oriented programming. It is basically a successor of C with the OOPs features. C++ is a flexible and highly efficient programming language. It is also a robust and well-performing programming language. Google Chrome and Microsoft Windows are the best examples of C++ programs.

    If you are going to start a career in object-oriented programming, then it is a must to learn C++. The popular programming language finds use in desktop application development, GUI application development, 3D game development, and building real-time mathematical solutions.

    C++ Example

    #include <iostream>
    using namespace std;
    int main()
    {
    cout << "Hello, World!";
    return 0;
    }

    Output:

    Hello, World!

    C++ Features

    • It is an easy-to-learn programming language and one of the best programming languages for those who are completely new to programming.
    • C++ is a multi-paradigm high-level programming language.
    • It contains almost all the important data structures and concepts that are even missing in Java and Python.
    • The code compilation speed of C++ is far better than Java and Python.
    • It supports manual memory management, which makes this closer to low-level programming languages.
    • Initially, it was only supported by Windows, but now it is a platform-independent programming language.

    Applications of C++

    • It is mainly used to build desktop applications and video games.
    • There are many popular apps, such as Google Chrome, which are built using C++.
    • Adobe and MySQL are also developed in C++.
    • C++ is very close to the low-level programming languages, which makes it compatible with system hardware. That’s why many developers use C++ to develop new operating systems.
    • There are many high-level programming languages that are built on C++ itself.
    • Operating systems of many small smart devices, such as smartwatches, rely on C++.

    C++ Job Opportunities

    Indeed, C++ ranks as the 4th most demanding programming language, and in the USA, every month, more than 40k new jobs are posted for C++ developers. Though there are not too many jobs for standard C++ developers, once you master advanced skills in C++, there are plenty of jobs out there.

    The salary of a C++ developer can vary from $41k to $108k per annum. Here is the list of major domains offering C++ jobs:

    • System Programming
    • Game Development
    • IoT and Real-Time Systems
    • Machine Learning and Deep Learning
    • Embedded Systems and Distributed Systems

    7. Kotlin

    Kotlin

    It’s an open-source programming language by JetBrains . This is also the most loved and demanding programming language of 2022. A statically typed language that runs on JVM, Kotlin provides interoperability with Java.

    Kotlin is another option for those who don’t want to make Android apps with Java, and Google officially recommends it now. It is compatible with Android Studio 3, and this is one of the major reasons behind its widespread growth.

    Soon, Kotlin will be in the most used languages as it is already used by popular productions like Netflix, Pinterest, and Amazon Web Services. If things go at the same speed, soon, Kotlin will be the new replacement for Java. Thus, it's high time to learn Kotlin.

    Kotlin Example

    fun main(args: Array<String>) {
    val first: Int = 10
    val second: Int = 20
    val sum = first + second
    println("The sum is: $sum")
    }

    Output:

    The sum is: 30

    Kotlin Features

    • It is the official language for Android development.
    • It is a statically typed programming language like Java and gives the same performance.
    • Compared to Java, Kotlin is straightforward to learn. Its syntax is compact.
    • Kotlin provides null safety, which reduces the crashing probability of an Android app by 70%.
    • It comes with many modern features, including support for lambda functions, smart casts, null safety, and operator overloading.
    • It is interoperable with Java. This means we can quickly call Kotlin code from Java and vice-versa.

    Applications of Kotlin

    Kotlin is primarily used to build Android Applications. If you are not a fan of Java, then you should learn Kotlin for developing Android Apps. There are many popular web apps that are built on Kotlin, including:

    • Pinterest
    • Coursera
    • Trello
    • Evernote

    Kotlin Job Opportunities

    In 2018, Google announced Kotlin as the official language for Android app development. Since then, the job market for Kotlin has increased at a tremendous speed. With the dropping popularity of Java, it would not be surprising if Google revokes the use of Java for Android development in the near future.

    The era of Android does not seem to end any time soon, so there is always a demand for Kotlin app developers. There are many companies whose income depends only on their Android app. Thus, they always try to hire a Kotlin developer instead of Java.

    The salary of a Kotlin developer can vary from $57k to $125k. The main working domains for Kotlin developers are:

    • Android App Development
    • Android Smartwatch App Development

    8. Java

    Java Programming Languages

    Java is an object-oriented programming language that has inspired many other popular programming languages. It is among the most secure and portable programming languages and follows the concept of “write once, run anywhere.” JVM (Java Virtual Machine) is what makes Java a platform-independent programming language.

    Many powerful languages have entered the market, but Java still has a long run to go. Java has one of the largest developer communities. Interestingly, the Android operating system is also based on Java. Moreover, Android apps are also developed using Java. The importance of Java can be inferred from the fact that 90% of Fortune 500 companies are using Java in some form.

    Java Example

    public class Prime {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
    int num = 29;
    boolean flag = false;
    for(int i = 2; i <= num/2; ++i)
    {
    // condition for nonprime number
    if(num % i == 0)
    {
    flag = true;
    break;
    }
    }
    if (!flag)
    System.out.println(num + " is a prime number.");
    else
    System.out.println(num + " is not a prime number.");
    }
    }

    Output:

    29 is a prime number.

    Java Features

    • It is a high-level and multi-paradigm object-oriented programming language.
    • It is a platform-independent programming language that works on the WORA principle.
    • Though it is not an ideal programming language for those who are entirely new to programming, it is surely among the most powerful and robust programming languages.
    • The code written in Java is more secure as compared to its rival programming languages, such as C++ and Python.
    • Java programs deliver high performance.
    • It supports multi-threading , which is not supported by many other high-level programming languages. In multi-threading, multiple threads of a program can be executed concurrently.
    • Java provides automatic memory management and dynamic compilation.

    Applications of Java

    • Right now, Java is primarily used to build mobile applications. Android Studio supports Java, which means a Java developer can create Android apps using Java.
    • Java is primarily famous for making applications or software. Apart from mobile development, Java is widely used to develop GUI desktop applications.
    • Java is one of the few versatile programming languages that can also be used to develop web applications.
    • Due to the robustness and security of Java code, Java is also ideal for building cloud-based applications, where security is one of the major concerns.
    • It is the primary language used by many gaming companies to create high-quality games.

    Java Job Opportunities

    Java is one of the oldest programming languages. For two whole decades, it held the number one position as the most popular programming language, and yet it is one of the most used programming languages.

    Many organizations hire Java developers for various job roles such as web development, Android app development, and video game development. In the US, every month, more than 65k new jobs are posted for Java developers, and the salary of a Java developer varies from $69k to $104k.

    Here are the leading work domains for Java developers:

    • Enterprise Application Development
    • Android App Development
    • Big Data
    • Web Development

    9. C#

    C# Programming Languages

    Pronounced C Sharp, C# is an object-oriented, general-purpose programming language that is built on the foundation of C. C++ is a part of the .NET framework of Microsoft for building Windows applications. Just as Swift is for iOS applications, C# is for Microsoft platforms.

    C# also has a syntax like other C-derived languages, such as C++, so it is easy to adopt C sharp if you are familiar with the C family. C# is also used to build cross-platform mobile applications on the Xamarin platform . By using C#, you can write lengthy programs in just a few lines with Xamarin and then deploy them to both the leading mobile platforms, i.e., iOS and Android, simultaneously.

    If you are crazy about VR and want to work in this field, then you have to choose C#. The best thing about C# is that it gives you the ability to develop any application you want, varying from complex APIs to desktop applications.

    C# Example

    namespace SumGenerator
    {
    class Program
    {
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
    Console.WriteLine("Write the first integer:");
    int first = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());
    Console.WriteLine("Write the second integer:");
    int second = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());
    int result = first + second;
    Console.WriteLine($"The result is {result}");
    Console.ReadKey();
    }
    }
    }

    Output:

    Write the first integer:
    5
    Write the second integer:
    15
    The result is 20

    C# Features

    • It is similar to C++ and C language, which makes it easy to learn for C++ and C developers.
    • It has many libraries and costly data types.
    • C# is maintained and supported by Microsoft, and with continuous updates, Microsoft tries to make it more secure and modern.
    • It supports the concept of object-oriented programming.
    • C# is interoperable with C++, which means it can do anything that C++ can do.
    • It compiles and executes code very fast.

    Applications of C#

    C# applications are mostly limited to Microsoft platforms. Here is the list of applications that can be build using C#:

    • Windows client applications
    • Windows libraries and components
    • Web applications
    • Windows services
    • Web services and Web API
    • Backend services
    • Azure cloud applications and services
    • Backend databases using ML/Data tools
    • Interoperability software such as Office, SharePoint, SQL Server, and so on.
    • Artificial Intelligence and Machine learning
    • Blockchains and distributed ledger technologies, including cryptocurrency
    • Internet of Things (IoT) devices

    C# Job Opportunities

    C# is quite popular among application developers because it can be used from desktop to web applications. It is highly compatible with Azure cloud computing, and with the .NET framework, it rules the web application domain.

    In the USA, more than 30k new jobs are posted for the C# developers every month, and most of them are related to the .NET development. The salary of a C# developer varies from $32k to $96k. Here is the list of some significant C# job domains:

    • Server-side Programming
    • App Development
    • Web Development
    • Game Development
    • Software Development for Windows

    10. Dart

    Dart is a programming language developed by Google, and it is ideal for developing the client-side of web applications as well as mobile applications. Released in 2011, Dart is a class-based and garbage-collected language that supports object-oriented programming. The syntax of Dart is inspired by the syntax of the language.

    Also, Dart is a statically typed language, which means that developers need to define the types of variables while declaring them in the program.  Flutter, which is one of the most popular frameworks for developing cross-platform applications uses Dart as its primary programming language.

    Dart Example

    void main() {
    
      for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
    
        print('hello ${i + 1}');
    
      }
    
    }

    Output:

    hello 1
    
    hello 2
    
    hello 3
    
    hello 4
    
    hello 5

    Dart Features

    • It is a platform-independent programming language that can run on almost all the popular operating systems, including Windows, macOS, and Linux.
    • Dart supports multithreading.
    • It is easy to learn and use Dart.
    • It is possible to compile code written in Dart to its native code or JavaScript.
    • Dart comes with a wide range of inbuilt libraries to make the development process smooth and more efficient.
    • The community around the Dart programming language is huge and expanding continuously.

    Applications of Dart

    Dart is widely used for creating modern web applications. Also, Dart allows the creation of cross-platform applications. Dart along with the Flutter framework makes it possible to create Android and iOS apps from a single codebase.

    Dart Job Opportunities

    Developers with expertise in Dart programming are mainly in demand for the development of Flutter applications. As of now, the role of Dart developers is pretty much limited to mobile application development. Nonetheless, there are always job openings for Dart developers in companies of all sizes.

    11. Swift

    Swift Programming Languages

    For iOS app development, Swift is the highest-paid career path. Released in 2014, it’s a relatively new language and an excellent place to start. Swift is growing rapidly, and according to a GitHub report, Swift is the 13th most popular programming language. As the scope of iOS apps is increasing, the number of Swift developers is also growing.

    Swift is easy to understand and a very expressive programming language. Even beginners can also develop robust and flexible apps with Swift. Apple iPhone remains in a top position among smartphones, so the career growth by choosing Swift for the future will also be high.

    Swift Example

    class Counter {
    var count = 0
    func increment() {
    count += 1
    print("value of count in increment() func is ",count)
    }
    func increment(by amount: Int) {
    count += amount
    print("value of count in increment(by:) func is ",count)
    }
    func reset() {
    count = 0
    print("value of count in reset func is ",count)
    }
    }
    let counter = Counter()
    counter.increment()
    counter.increment(by: 5)
    counter.reset()
    /* prints:
    value of count in increment() func is 1
    value of count in increment(by:) func is 6
    value of count in reset func is 0
    */

    Swift Features

    • Compared to Objective-C, Swift is very easy to learn.
    • It is an open-source programming language.
    • Apart from macOS, it can be used on Linux and Windows.
    • It delivers better speed and performance
    • Swift features dynamic libraries with fewer errors.
    • It has two significant frameworks, Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, for enhancing app quality.
    • Apple focuses on security, and Swift serves this purpose well.

    Applications of Swift

    It can only be used for Apple platforms, such as iOS, macOS, watchOS, and tvOS. If any application or game is not built on Objective-C, then it would be made on Swift.

    Swift Job Opportunities

    The Apple platform only supports Swift. So if you are into Apple devices and want to land a developer job in Apple, Inc., then you need to learn Swift. It was designed to replace Objective-C. Currently, all Apple platform applications run on Swift. Landing a job in Apple, Inc. could be hard. So many developers do not choose Swift, but there will always be a demand for iOS and macOS developers.

    The salary of a Swift developer can vary from $6k to $125k. Here are some major Swift job domains:

    • iOS App Development
    • System Programming
    • Client-side Development (via WebAssembly )
    • Deep Learning
    • IoT

    12. C

    C is among the highly popular programming languages and it is also one of the oldest languages in existence. Developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie, C is a general-purpose, statically-typed programming language. It follows two major programming paradigms, namely procedural and structured.

    With C, programmers can have low-level access to memory, thus C partially acts as a low-level programming language. This characteristic of C also makes it a suitable choice for developing operating systems.

    C is also referred to as “the mother of all programming languages” because many other popular programming languages, including C++, Java, Python, JavaScript, and PHP are created with C.

    C Example

    #include <stdio.h>
    
    int main()
    
    {
    
      printf("Hello World\n");
    
      return 0;
    
    }

    Output:

    Hello World

    C Features

    • It allows programmers to directly manage the computer resources, thus applications developed with C are highly efficient.
    • It offers a wide range of built-in operators that makes it possible to write programs of all complexity levels with ease.
    • C programs are highly portable as you can compile and run them on almost any system.
    • The C standard library has several inbuilt functions that make it quite easy to write C code for accomplishing certain tasks.

    Applications of C

    C is a general-purpose programming language and thus it has several applications. You can use C in the following applications:

    • Embedded Systems
    • Development of system applications and desktop applications.
    • Database development
    • Browser and extensions development
    • Operating system development
    • Development of IoT applications

    C Job Opportunities

    C programmers are high in demand in the market. One major reason for companies to employ C programmers is that they can learn other languages quite easily. Thus, a C programmer may need to work with other programming languages as well.

    Some of the most common positions for C developers are as follows:

    • IoT Embedded Software Engineer
    • Application Developer
    • Embedded C Developer
    • C Programmer

    The average salary of C developers is about $90K per year. However, an experienced C developer can earn well up to $187K per year.

    13. Haskell

    There are several programming languages that are not as popular as Python, C, JavaScript, etc. but they surely have the capability to gain the attention of developers. One such programming language is Haskell. It is a general-purpose and statically-typed programming language that was released for the first time in 1990.

    Haskell follows the purely functional paradigm, which makes it quite different than many other mainstream programming languages. Also, it allows developers to write clean code and cut down the overall development time.

    Haskell Example

    main = putStrLn "Hello, world!"

    Output:

    Hello, world!

    Haskell Features

    • It supports type inference, which allows compilers to detect bugs during the compile time.
    • Haskell makes use of Glasgow Haskell Compiler (GHC), which is open-source and known for implementing concurrency and parallelism quite effectively.
    • Being a purely functional language, the functions written in Haskell are usually free from side effects. In general, a side effect refers to the act when a function changes the value of a state variable or modifies a mutable argument.
    • It employs lazy evaluation to improve the overall code performance.
    • There’s an online repository named Hackage that gives Haskell developers access to more than 5400 open-source libraries.

    Applications of Haskell

    Haskell is an ideal choice for the development of the following:

    • Version control systems
    • Compilers and interpreters
    • Window manager
    • High-performance software

    Haskell Job Opportunities

    Haskell is a powerful programming language and many companies around the world use it to develop robust software. While the demand for Haskell developers is not too high, there are significant job openings for Haskell developers. When it comes to the salary of Haskell developers, it can vary from $32K to $112K.

    14. Elixir

    Elixir is yet another programming language that has become quite popular in recent years. It is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language that is built on top of the Erlang programming language. The paradigms that Elixir follows are namely functional, process-oriented, distributed, and concurrent.

    One of the key characteristics of Elixir is that it supports dynamic typing, which means that developers do not need to define the types of variables. José Valim developed the Elixir programming language with the intent of making it an extensive and more productive version of the ErlangVM.

    Many features of Elixir are inspired by three programming languages, namely Erlang, Ruby, and Clojure.

    Elixir Example

    x = 10
    
    y = 25
    
    z = x + y
    
    IO.puts "Sum of #{x} and #{y} is #{z}"

    Output:

    Sum of 10 and 25 is 35

    Elixir Features

    • It is capable of handling large volumes of data.
    • The Elixir code compiles to bytecode for the Erlang VM (Virtual Machine).
    • Supports metaprogramming and polymorphism.
    • Comes with build-in tools for code compilation, testing, remote debugging, and code formatting.
    • Like Erlang, Elixir offers scalability of systems both horizontally and vertically.

    Applications of Elixir

    Elixir allows developers to build:

    • Embedded systems
    • Web applications
    • Software licensing and inventory systems
    • Interpreters

    Elixir Job Opportunites

    The job opportunities for Elixir developers are limited as of now. However, the job openings may increase in the future as the popularity of Elixir is increasing continuously. The popular job roles for Elixir developers include Software Developer, Back-end Developer, Full Stack Developer, and Product Engineer. The salary of Elixir developers can go up to $142K.

    15. R Programming Language

    R Programming Language

    R is one of the most popular programming languages used for complex statistical analysis and graphics programming. It is used primarily for ad hoc analysis and to explore large datasets. It is the second most used programming language for data science.

    Moreover, R is often used for data mining projects also. It is much more durable than other statistical programming languages. It is also compatible with LaTex, which is a Scientific Document TypeSetting program to create documents.

    We can integrate R code with LaTex document and create our own professional documentation for open-source code. The document that we create with R and LaTex provides a better, accurate, clean, and efficient way to represent the code documentation and data visualization for open-source projects.

    R Example

    #with quotes
    print("Hello World")
    
    #without quotes
    print("Hello World", quote = FALSE)

    Output

    "Hello World"
    
    Hello World

    R Features

    • It is an open-source programming language.
    • It contains more scientific and numeric libraries than Python.
    • R is a statically typed programming language, which makes it faster than Python.
    • It has many powerful graphical data visualization libraries.
    • It also has a substantial active community for data science.
    • R is well known for its support for complex statistical calculations.
    • It is an interpreted language.
    • It can easily integrate with any database.
    • All the popular platforms support it.
    • It can also pull data from web APIs, servers, and many other formats.

    Applications of R

    • Many tech giants like Mozilla, Microsoft, and Foursquare use R for machine learning projects.
    • Amazon uses R and its data analysis tools to improve its cross-product suggestions.
    • Facebook uses R to predict colleague interactions and update its social network graph.

    R Job Opportunities

    In the domain of data science and machine learning, R is more popular than Python, and it is the only language that holds the caliber of replacing Python in the data science domain.

    Many companies who hire data scientists and machine learning engineers look for developers' knowledge in R because a data scientist should know at least two different programming languages. The salary of an R developer can vary from $92k to $130k.

    16. Ruby

    Ruby Programming

    Ruby is also a popular programming language, and it's not a new language. It was developed in the mid-90s and gained high popularity over the years. Ruby is an object-oriented programming language.

    Also, it is a dynamically typed and interpreted programming language. It is much like Python, and the two programming languages share several similarities. Ruby is used as the popular Ruby on Rails web application framework.

    Ruby has one of the friendliest and most helpful user communities. The chief inventor of Ruby is Yukihiro Matsumoto. He always encourages members. Therefore, the community also has the tagline “Matz is nice, and so we are nice.”

    Most modern web apps such as Airbnb, Github, ASKfm, Fiverr, and Goodreads utilize Ruby in one way or another.

    Ruby Example

    puts "puts works"
    puts " with line breaks."
    print "print works"
    print " with no line breaks."
    printf("\n\nprintf formats numbers like %7.2f, and
    strings like %s.",3.14156,"me")

    Output:

    puts works
    with line breaks.
    print works with no line breaks.
    printf formats numbers like 3.14, and strings like
    me.

    Ruby Features

    • It is a pure object-oriented programming language.
    • It is easy to learn and highly recommended for developers seeking a career in web development.
    • Ruby is very flexible. You can easily remove and redefine the existing classes.
    • It is a dynamically typed language.
    • Like Java and Python, Ruby is case-sensitive.
    • It comes with an inbuilt garbage collector.
    • It has a very famous framework, Ruby on Rails.

    Applications of Ruby

    • Ruby is primarily suitable for web development. There are various web applications that are built on Ruby.
    • Spotify uses Ruby on Rails.
    • Ruby is considered the best choice for content management websites.
    • It can easily integrate itself with DBMS and thus, allows you to manage a complex database.

    Ruby Job Opportunities

    As Ruby is mainly used for web development, there are not too many jobs related to it. Nonetheless, in the USA, every month, more than 10k new jobs are listed for Ruby developers. The salary of a Ruby developer can vary from $4k to $93k.

    17. Scala

    Scala is a modern programming language that combines the features of object-oriented programming and functional programming. Developed in 2004, Scala is well-known for being fast, efficient, and scalable.

    Largely inspired by the Java programming language, it is possible to compile Scala code into Java bytecode. Also, the compiled Java bytecode can run on a Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The interoperability with Java allows Scala to use Java frameworks, libraries, and tools.

    Scale Example

    object Main extends App {
    
    // your code goes here
    
     println ("Hello World")
    
    }

    Output:

    Hello World

    Scala Features

    • It is a statically-typed language that supports high-order functions.
    • Compared to Java, the syntax of Scala is flexible.
    • It allows developers to add new language constructs as libraries.
    • It comes with lazy evaluations and pattern matching.
    • Scala supports different testing styles.

    Applications of Scala

    • Scala is a great choice for developing feature-rich web applications and APIs.
    • Apache Spark uses Scala for Data Analysis and data streaming.
    • It facilitates the development of video transcoding systems.

    Scala Job Opportunities

    The growing popularity and adoption of Scala by big tech companies have increased the demand for Scala developers in the market. Also, due to its interoperability with Java, there are several job opportunities that require knowledge of either Java or Scala. The salary of Scala developers can vary from $66K to $100K.

    18. PHP

    PHP is one of the most popular scripting languages for back-end development. In other words, it is a server-side scripting language that facilitates the development of dynamic websites and web applications. PHP is an acronym for Hypertext Preprocessor. It follows several popular programming paradigms, including object-oriented, procedural, and functional programming.

    Being an interpreted language, it is essential for a web server to have a PHP interpreter to execute the PHP code. The key reason for using PHP in web development is to add dynamic elements or behavior to web pages. Additionally, this programming language works across all major platforms, including Windows, macOS, and Linux.

    PHP Example

    <?php
    
    $txt = "World";
    
    echo "Hello $txt!";
    
    ?>

    Output:

    Hello World!

    PHP Features

    • PHP syntax is easy to learn and use.
    • It can work seamlessly with most major database management systems, including MySQL, MariaDB, MongoDB, and PostgreSQL.
    • PHP is capable of managing memory quite efficiently, thus PHP scripts load quickly.
    • Most hosting servers offer seamless support for PHP.
    • The PHP community is huge and highly active.

    Applications of PHP

    • Website and web app development
    • Native desktop GUI application development
    • Image processing and graphic design
    • Dynamic data visualization
    • Ecommerce development

    PHP Job Opportunities

    PHP is a preferred choice among many companies for developing the back-end of web applications. Also, many popular websites and web applications have used PHP, such as Wikipedia, Slack, MailChimp, and WordPress CMS.

    Thus, there is great demand for PHP developers for the development of new projects and maintenance of existing applications. The average salary of PHP developers in the US is $79K, and the salary range is $52K-$112K.

    19. Julia

    If you want to work with data visualization and machine learning, Julia can be a good choice for you. It is a general-purpose, high-level programming language that ensures exceptional performance.

    Julia is developed by a team having four key members, namely Jeff Bezanson, Viral B. Shah, Alan Edelman, and Stefan Karpinski. Released in 2012, Julia has steadily become a favorite of many developers who admire its high performance. Also, the programming language has several features that make it suitable for performing numerical analysis and scientific computations.

    Julia Example

    println("Hello World")

    Output:

    Hello World

    Julia Features

    • It is a free and open-source programming language available under the MIT, GPLv2 license.
    • Julia is also suitable for low-level programming.
    • It comes with a built-in package manager named Pkg.
    • It can easily interface with many other popular programming languages, including Java, Python, and R.
    • Julia offers support for Unicode.

    Applications of Julia

    As Julia is a general-purpose programming language, it has several applications. You can use Julia for the following:

    • Development of machine learning models
    • Data Science
    • Web development (both client-side and server-side)
    • Game development

    Julia Job Opportunities

    While the popularity of Julia is on the rise, there are several job opportunities for Julia developers. The following are some of the popular job roles that require extensive knowledge of Julia programming:

    • Julia Developer
    • Cloud Security Architect
    • Application Engineer
    • Scientific GUI Engineer

    When it comes to salary, Julia developers can earn up to $155K a year.

    20. F#

    F# is another popular programming language developed by Microsoft and The F# Software Foundation. It is a cross-platform programming language that developers working with the .NET framework use as a Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). Also, it is a general-purpose and strongly typed language, and it follows multiple programming paradigms, such as functional, object-oriented, reflective, metaprogramming, and imperative.

    Released in 2005, several aspects of F# are influenced by popular programming languages, including Python, C#, Erlang, and Scala. When it comes to learning, F# is not too hard to learn. However, to get comfortable with this programming language, it is important to have a good understanding of the concepts of functional programming.

    F# Example

    printfn "Hello World!"

    Output:

    Hello World!

    F# Features

    • F# syntax does not use curly brackets, semicolons, etc. Thus it becomes possible to write clean code and too quickly.
    • Compared to several complex programming languages, F# allows developers to write programs in fewer code lines.
    • Being a functional programming language, functions in F# can accept other functions as parameters. This facilitates the creation of reusable code.
    • It supports, asynchronous programming, event handling, lazy evaluation, higher-order functions, and pattern matching.

    Applications of F#

    F# is a suitable choice for the following:

    • Scientific research
    • Desktop and mobile application development
    • Game development
    • Web development
    • Machine learning
    • Data Science

    F# Job Opportunities

    There is a good demand for F# developers in the IT industry. From Full Stack Developer to Data Engineer, individuals with expertise in F# programming can apply for a variety of job roles. Also, many big companies, such as ExxonMobil, JPMorgan Chase & Co., and Oracle hire F# developers from time to time. The salary of F# developers can vary between $38K and $219K.

    21. Clojure

    Clojure is a dynamic programming language, and it is a functional dialect of the Lisp programming language. In other words, Clojure is largely inspired by the Lisp programming language. One interesting thing about Clojure is that you can compile it into Java bytecode, which can run on any system having JVM (Java Virtual Machine).

    The syntax of Clojure is quite simple and easy to understand, thus making it a beginner-friendly programming language. The immutable data structure support in Clojure assists developers in writing multi-thread programs.

    Clojure Example

    (defn hello-world [username]
    
    (println (format "Hello, %s!" username)))
    
    (hello-world "world")

    Output:

    Hello, world

    Clojure Features

    • Clojure uses Lisp macro system that allows you to extend its functionality.
    • It allows you to write concurrent programs easily.
    • It is possible to compile Clojure code into JavaScript code using the ClojureScript compiler.
    • Clojure interoperates with Java quite effectively.
    • Its community is active and growing continuously.

    Applications of Clojure

    • Server-side development
    • Data analytics
    • Desktop application development
    • Mobile application development
    • Scientific computing

    Clojure Job Opportunities

    As Clojure interoperates with Java and offers better performance and features, its demand in the market is rising steadily. For Clojure developers, there are different roles that they get in organizations, such as Software Engineer, Full-Stack Web Developer, and Data Engineer. When it comes to remuneration, the average salary that Clojure developers earn is about $80K.

    22. Erlang

    Erlang is another powerful programming language that is ideal for developing scalable and real-time systems. It is a general-purpose programming language that follows the concepts of functional and concurrent programming.

    Also, Erlang acts as a garbage-collected runtime system. Joe Armstrong, Robert Virding, and Mike Williams developed Erlang in 1986. Initially, this programming language was used for developing complex telecommunication systems. However, today Erlang has real-world applications in a wide array of industries.

    Erlang Example

    -module(helloworld).
    
    -export([start/0]).
    
    
    start() ->
    
        io:fwrite("Hello, world!\n").

    Output:

    Hello, world!

    Erlang Features

    • Erlang makes it possible to write simple code that is simple yet efficient.
    • Its exceptional fault tolerance comes in handy for building high availability systems.
    • It allows external processes to detect hardware failures.
    • Erlang makes use of BEAM, which is a virtual machine that executes Erlang code.

    Applications of Erlang

    Erlang is a suitable choice for the development of the following:

    • Distributed databases
    • Robust web services, including API endpoints
    • Daemons and services
    • Blockchains
    • High-performance software

    Erlang Job Opportunities

    Individuals with expertise in Erlang programming are mostly in demand within the domain of software development and back-end development. There are several job opportunities for Erlang developers and the salary packages are lucrative. The salaries of Erlang developers are usually in the range of $77K - $150K.

    Conclusion

    If you are a beginner and going to choose programming or development as your career, then you must read the article carefully and choose the best language in all aspects of your job. You may ask us for any queries in the comment box.

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