10 Top Programming Languages to Learn in 2022

By | November 13, 2021
Top Programming Languages to Learn

Programming languages helps to develop software. A programming language helps you to give instructions to a machine so that the machine can perform tasks. The world is now more focused on technology. Right now, we are surrounded by different technologies and gadgets. At the basic level, programming is what enables different technologies.

But the question to ask is, “What are the different programming languages responsible for giving instructions to machines?” Here in this article, we discuss the top ten programming languages to start your coding and programming journey in 2022.

Introduction to Programming Languages

What is Programming?

A programming language is a tool to tell the computer systems – via instructions – what to perform and how to perform. It’s the medium of communication with the computer system. In simple words, the programming language is the language of the computer.

There are several programming languages available in the market, and each one has its own set of grammatical rules, which is known as its syntax. Different programming languages serve different purposes, and every programming language comes with specific features. Although the syntax of every high-level programming language is different on the surface, they all share the same underlying concepts.

Importance of Programming Languages

Importance of programming languages

In the current generation of technology, nothing is possible without a programming language. Here are some important reasons to learn to program:

Vamware
  • Programming languages are essential to interact with machines and computers.
  • Programming helps to automate tasks.
  • To harness the power of computing for all humans.
  • To create more intelligent technologies and machines.

10 Top Programming Languages in 2022

As technology is growing and changing rapidly, new programming languages are also taking seeing the light of day and replacing the old ones. The competition is increasing at a high-speed day by day. To stay in the race for programming, developers need to stay updated with the latest trends in programming and the knowledge of top programming languages.

In this article, we will discuss the top 10 programming languages in 2022 and beyond. We will provide a succinct introduction of each programming language along with an example, its features, applications, and job prospects. So, let’s start our list with the most beginner-friendly programming language as of yet, Python:

1. Python

Python Programming Languages

Python is the most popular programming language of 2021 and will continue to be so in 2022. It is a high-level, general-purpose programming language with support for many useful libraries and web frameworks. Python is best for beginners as its syntax is very simple and almost like English.

The popular programming language finds use in web development, application development, mobile app development, AI, data science, and so on. Popular Python web frameworks include Django, Flask, TurboGears, and Web2Py.

Mozilla, Instagram, and Spotify are examples of websites developed with Django. Python also has packages like NumPy and SciPy that are mainly used in scientific computing, engineering, and mathematics.

Python Example

# To add two numbers
num1 = 1.5
num2 = 6.3
# Add two numbers
sum = float(num1) + float(num2)
# Display the sum
print('The sum of {0} and {1} is {2}'.format(num1, num2, sum))

Output:

The sum of 1.5 and 6.3 is 7.8

Python Features

Let’s discuss some most important features of Python, which justify its popularity among developers:

  • The first and most crucial feature of python is its low learning curve. Python is considered the most accessible programming language and an ideal language for beginners.
  • It has a beautiful syntax, and unlike other programming languages, you do not have to care about semi-colons and brackets to terminate a statement or expression in Python.
  • It is a cross-platform and open-source programming language so that you do not have to make any changes in the source code when you want to run it on various platforms.
  • Python is an interpreted programming language, which means it uses an interpreter to execute the code. An interpreter reads the code line by line and simultaneously executes it.
  • It supports the object-oriented programming paradigm and thus, supports the concepts of classes and objects.
  • It has a large number of open-source libraries, which make it the most versatile programming language. Except for mobile development, Python has libraries for almost all fields of programming.
  • Python has a proactive community spread across the globe. From web development to artificial intelligence, everyone is using Python for their projects and is interested in sharing their work and helping others get on board with the popular programming language.

Applications of Python

Here are some of the top domains that use Python:

  • Python has many powerful web frameworks, such as Django, Flask, and Pyramid, that help to create web applications.
  • Python can also be used to build GUI desktop applications. It has many libraries and toolkits, such as Tk, Kivy, and pyqt, that can serve this purpose.
  • The programming language is famous for scientific and numerical applications in the fields of data science and AI. Python has libraries that are helpful for such projects.
  • Python can be used to build control and management testing in software development.
  • Like other high-level programming languages, Python can also be used to build console-based applications.
  • Using Python, we can even build multimedia-based applications.

Python Job Opportunities

Python developers are very much in demand these days. In January 2021 alone, there were 74k new jobs posted for Python developers in the USA. If we took the USA job market as a reference, the salary of a Python developer could vary from $71,557 to $110,919. Here are some significant domains that require Python developers:

2. JavaScript

Javscript Programming

JavaScript holds the second position on our list of the top 10 programming languages. It is a very popular scripting language, and it is almost impossible to say that there is a developer not using JavaScript in some way.

Although JavaScript was initially developed for front-end development, it can now also be used for back-end development, especially after the advent of NodeJS.

JavaScript is essential – along with HTML and CSS – for front-end development. Popular giants like Facebook, Gmail, Twitter, and YouTube also rely on JavaScript to design interactive front-end for their users. Popular JavaScript frameworks include Angular, React, and Vue. JavaScript has a flexible syntax and supports all major web browsers.

JavaScript Example

<html>
<head>
<title>Multiplication Table</title>
<script type="text/javascript">
var rows = prompt("Enter number of rows: ");
var cols = prompt("Enter number of columns: ");
if(rows == "" || rows == null)
rows = 10;
if(cols== "" || cols== null)
cols = 10;
createTable(rows, cols);
function createTable(rows, cols)
{
var j=1;
var output = "<table border='1' width='500' cellspacing='0'cellpadding='5'>";
for(i=1;i<=rows;i++)
{
output = output + "<tr>";
while(j<=cols)
{
output = output + "<td>" + i*j + "</td>";
j = j+1;
}
output = output + "</tr>";
j = 1;
}
output = output + "</table>";
document.write(output);
}
</script>
</head>
<body>
</body>
</html>

Output:

Enter number of rows: 2
Enter number of columns: 2
1 2
2 4

JavaScript Features

Here are some important features of JavaScript:

  • It can manipulate the DOM. For instance, using JavaScript, we can change the HTML elements on a web page and their attributes.
  • Though it is a web Scripting language, JS also supports many features of high-level programming languages, such as functions, methods, and objects.
  • It is a platform-independent language. Thus, its code can be executed on any popular web browser.
  • It has inbuilt date and time functions.
  • Form validation is one of the most powerful features of JavaScript. Rather than submitting an invalid form to the server, JavaScript can validate the form data on the client side.
  • It has many popular frameworks and libraries, which are used by big tech giants, such as Google and Facebook.

Applications of JavaScript

Here are some major applications of JavaScript:

  • The primary job of JavaScript is to add behavior to the web page. This makes a webpage more interactive and responsive.
  • We can create web applications using JavaScript libraries.
  • With Node.js, which is a JS runtime environment, we can create server-side applications.
  • JS can also be used to create mobile web applications.
  • Smartwatches also use JavaScript applications.
  • Many gaming development entities, such as Unity use JavaScript for game development.

JavaScript Job Opportunities

Web developers are high in demand, so do the JavaScript developers, and we cannot imagine a webpage without JavaScript. After the release of Node.js, the development reach of a JS developer has been pushed from front-end development to back-end and full-stack development. Now, there are many organizations that completely work on JS for the client- as well as the server-side scripting.

Companies like Google and Facebook are spending millions on JS projects like Angular and React rather than on hard-coded high-level programming languages. In the US, every month, more than 50k jobs are posted for JS developers, and the salary range varies from $57k to $144k per year. Here is the list of domains requiring JavaScript developers:

3. Java

Java Programming Languages

Java is an object-oriented programming language that has inspired many other popular programming languages. It is among the most secure and portable programming languages and follows the concept of “write once, run anywhere.”

JVM (Java Virtual Machine) is what makes Java a platform-independent programming language. Many powerful languages have entered the market, but Java still has a long run to go. Java has one of the largest developer communities.

Interestingly, the Android operating system is also based on Java. Moreover, Android apps are also developed using Java. The importance of Java can be inferred from the fact that 90% of Fortune 500 companies are using Java in some form.

Java Example

public class Prime {
public static void main(String[] args) {
int num = 29;
boolean flag = false;
for(int i = 2; i <= num/2; ++i)
{
// condition for nonprime number
if(num % i == 0)
{
flag = true;
break;
}
}
if (!flag)
System.out.println(num + " is a prime number.");
else
System.out.println(num + " is not a prime number.");
}
}

Output:

29 is a prime number.

Java Features

  • It is a high-level and multi-paradigm object-oriented programming language.
  • It is a platform-independent programming language that works on the WORA principle.
  • Though it is not an ideal programming language for those who are entirely new to programming, it is surely among the most powerful and robust programming languages.
  • The code written in Java is more secure as compared to its rival programming languages, such as C++ and Python.
  • Java programs deliver high performance.
  • It supports multi-threading, which is not supported by many other high-level programming languages. In multi-threading, multiple threads of a program can be executed concurrently.
  • Java provides automatic memory management and dynamic compilation.

Applications of Java

  • Right now, Java is primarily used to build mobile applications. Android Studio supports Java, which means a Java developer can create Android apps using Java.
  • Java is primarily famous for making applications or software. Apart from mobile development, Java is widely used to develop GUI desktop applications.
  • Java is one of the few versatile programming languages that can also be used to develop web applications.
  • Due to the robustness and security of Java code, Java is also ideal for building cloud-based applications, where security is one of the major concerns.
  • It is the primary language used by many gaming companies to create high-quality games.

Java Job Opportunities

Java is one of the oldest programming languages. For two whole decades, it held the number one position as the most popular programming language, and yet it is one of the most used programming languages. Many organizations hire Java developers for various job roles such as web development, Android app development, and video game development.

In the US, every month, more than 65k new jobs are posted for Java developers, and the salary of a Java developer varies from $69k to $104k. Here are the leading work domains for Java developers:

  • Enterprise Application Development
  • Android App Development
  • Big Data
  • Web Development

4. C++

C++

C++ started the advent of object-oriented programming. It is basically a successor of C with the OOPs features. C++ is a flexible and highly efficient programming language. It is also a robust and well-performing programming language.

Google Chrome and Microsoft Windows are the best examples of C++ programs. If you are going to start a career in object-oriented programming, then it is a must to learn C++. The popular programming language finds use in desktop application development, GUI application development, 3D game development, and building real-time mathematical solutions.

C++ Example

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
cout << "Hello, World!";
return 0;
}

Output:

Hello, World!

C++ Features

  • It is an easy-to-learn programming language and one of the best programming languages for those who are completely new to programming.
  • C++ is a multi-paradigm high-level programming language.
  • It contains almost all the important data structures and concepts that are even missing in Java and Python.
  • The code compilation speed of C++ is far better than Java and Python.
  • It supports manual memory management, which makes this closer to low-level programming languages.
  • Initially, it was only supported by Windows, but now it is a platform-independent programming language.

Applications of C++

  • It is mainly used to build desktop applications and video games.
  • There are many popular apps, such as Google Chrome, which are built using C++.
  • Adobe and MySQL are also developed in C++.
  • C++ is very close to the low-level programming languages, which makes it compatible with system hardware. That’s why many developers use C++ to develop new operating systems.
  • There are many high-level programming languages that are built on C++ itself.
  • Operating systems of many small smart devices, such as smartwatches, rely on C++.

C++ Job Opportunities

Indeed, C++ ranks as the 4th most demanding programming language, and in the USA, every month, more than 40k new jobs are posted for C++ developers. Though there are not too many jobs for standard C++ developers, once you master advanced skills in C++, there are plenty of jobs out there. The salary of a C++ developer can vary from $41k to $108k per annum. Here is the list of major domains offering C++ jobs:

  • System Programming
  • Game Development
  • IoT and Real-Time Systems
  • Machine Learning and Deep Learning
  • Embedded Systems and Distributed Systems

5. Swift

Swift Programming Languages

For iOS app development, Swift is the highest-paid career path. Released in 2014, it’s a relatively new language and an excellent place to start. Swift is growing rapidly, and according to a GitHub report, Swift is the 13th most popular programming language. As the scope of iOS apps is increasing, the number of Swift developers is also growing.

Swift is easy to understand and a very expressive programming language. Even beginners can also develop robust and flexible apps with Swift. Apple iPhone remains in a top position among smartphones, so the career growth by choosing Swift for the future will also be high.

Swift Example

class Counter {
var count = 0
func increment() {
count += 1
print("value of count in increment() func is ",count)
}
func increment(by amount: Int) {
count += amount
print("value of count in increment(by:) func is ",count)
}
func reset() {
count = 0
print("value of count in reset func is ",count)
}
}
let counter = Counter()
counter.increment()
counter.increment(by: 5)
counter.reset()
/* prints:
value of count in increment() func is 1
value of count in increment(by:) func is 6
value of count in reset func is 0
*/

Swift Features

  • Compared to Objective-C, Swift is very easy to learn.
  • It is an open-source programming language.
  • Apart from macOS, it can be used on Linux and Windows.
  • It delivers better speed and performance
  • Swift features dynamic libraries with fewer errors.
  • It has two significant frameworks, Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, for enhancing app quality.
  • Apple focuses on security, and Swift serves this purpose well.

Applications of Swift

It can only be used for Apple platforms, such as iOS, macOS, watchOS, and tvOS. If any application or game is not built on Objective-C, then it would be made on Swift.

Swift Job Opportunities

The Apple platform only supports Swift. So if you are into Apple devices and want to land a developer job in Apple, Inc., then you need to learn Swift. It was designed to replace Objective-C. Currently, all Apple platforms applications run on Swift.

Landing a job in Apple, Inc. could be hard. So many developers do not choose Swift, but there will always be a demand for iOS and macOS developers. The salary of a Swift developer can vary from $6k to $125k. Here are some major Swift job domains:

  • iOS App Development
  • System Programming
  • Client-side Development (via WebAssembly)
  • Deep Learning
  • IoT

6. C#

C# Programming Languages

Pronounced C Sharp, C# is an object-oriented, general-purpose programming language that is built on the foundation of C. C++ is a part of the .NET framework of Microsoft for building Windows applications. Just as Swift is for iOS applications, C# is for Microsoft platforms. C# also has a syntax like other C-derived languages, such as C++, so it is easy to adopt C sharp if you are familiar with the C family.

C# is also used to build cross-platform mobile applications on the Xamarin platform. By using C#, you can write lengthy programs in just a few lines with Xamarin and then deploy them to both the leading mobile platforms, i.e., iOS and Android, simultaneously.

If you are crazy about VR and want to work in this field, then you have to choose C#. The best thing about C# is that it gives you the ability to develop any application you want, varying from complex APIs to desktop applications.

C# Example

namespace SumGenerator
{
class Program
{
static void Main(string[] args)
{
Console.WriteLine("Write the first integer:");
int first = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());
Console.WriteLine("Write the second integer:");
int second = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());
int result = first + second;
Console.WriteLine($"The result is {result}");
Console.ReadKey();
}
}
}

Output:

Write the first integer:
5
Write the second integer:
15
The result is 20

C# Features

  • It is similar to C++ and C language, which makes it easy to learn for C++ and C developers.
  • It has many libraries and costly data types.
  • C# is maintained and supported by Microsoft, and with continuous updates, Microsoft tries to make it more secure and modern.
  • It supports the concept of object-oriented programming.
  • C# is interoperable with C++, which means it can do anything that C++ can do.
  • It compiles and executes code very fast.

Applications of C#

C# applications are mostly limited to Microsoft platforms. Here is the list of applications that can be build using C#:

  • Windows client applications
  • Windows libraries and components
  • Web applications
  • Windows services
  • Web services and Web API
  • Backend services
  • Azure cloud applications and services
  • Backend databases using ML/Data tools
  • Interoperability software such as Office, SharePoint, SQL Server, and so on.
  • Artificial Intelligence and Machine learning
  • Blockchains and distributed ledger technologies, including cryptocurrency
  • Internet of Things (IoT) devices

C# Job Opportunities

C# is quite popular among application developers because it can be used from desktop to web applications. It is highly compatible with Azure cloud computing, and with the .NET framework, it rules the web application domain. In the USA, more than 30k new jobs are posted for the C# developers every month, and most of them are related to the .NET development. The salary of a C# developer varies from $32k to $96k. Here is the list of some significant C# job domains:

  • Server-side Programming
  • App Development
  • Web Development
  • Game Development
  • Software Development for Windows

7. Kotlin

Kotlin

It’s an open-source programming language by JetBrains. This is also the most loved and demanding programming language of 2021. A statically typed language that runs on JVM, Kotlin provides interoperability with Java.

Kotlin is another option for those who don’t want to make Android apps with Java, and Google officially recommends it now. It is compatible with Android Studio 3, and this is one of the major reasons behind its widespread growth.

Soon, Kotlin will be in the most used languages as it is already used by popular productions like Netflix, Pinterest, and Amazon Web Services. If things go at the same speed, soon, Kotlin will be the new replacement of Java. Thus, it’s high time to learn Kotlin.

Kotlin Example

fun main(args: Array<String>) {
val first: Int = 10
val second: Int = 20
val sum = first + second
println("The sum is: $sum")
}

Output:

The sum is: 30

Kotlin Features

  • It is the official language for Android development.
  • It is a statically typed programming language like Java and gives the same performance.
  • Compared to Java, Kotlin is straightforward to learn. Its syntax is compact.
  • Kotlin provides null safety, which reduces the crashing probability of an Android app by 70%.
  • It comes with many modern features, including support for lambda functions, smart casts, null safety, and operator overloading.
  • It is interoperable with Java. This means we can quickly call Kotlin code from Java and vice-versa.

Applications of Kotlin

Kotlin is primarily used to build Android Applications. If you are not a fan of Java, then you should learn Kotlin for developing Android Apps. There are many popular web apps that are built on Kotlin, including:

  • Pinterest
  • Coursera
  • Trello
  • Evernote

Kotlin Job Opportunities

In 2018, Google announced Kotlin as the official language for Android app development. Since then, the job market for Kotlin has increased at a tremendous speed. With the dropping popularity of Java, it would not be surprising if Google revokes the use of Java for Android development in the near future.

The era of Android does not seem to end any time soon, so there is always a demand for Kotlin app developers. There are many companies whose income depends only on their Android app. Thus, they always try to hire a Kotlin developer instead of Java. The salary of a Kotlin developer can vary from $57k to $125k. The main working domains for Kotlin developers are:

  • Android App Development
  • Android Smartwatch App Development

8. Go Programming Language

Go Programming Languages

Go is simple to write like Python but more efficient like C++. The masterminds behind this subtle approach are Robert Griesemer, Ken Thompson, and Rob Pike. Developed by Google, Go can handle even the hardest computational problems.

It is the advanced and modern version of C, including compiled language, statically typed, garbage collection, structural typing, and CSP-style concurrency. Kubernetes and Ethereum Cryptozoic Project are based on Go. Go is an emerging programming language with many desirable features and a compelling option for your next open-source project.

Go Example

package main
import "fmt"
func main() {
var greeting = "Hello world!"
fmt.Printf("String Length is: ")
fmt.Println(len(greeting))
}

Output:

String Length is: 12

Go Features

  • It is supported and maintained by Google.
  • With Go, we can quickly implement a concurrent system.
  • It is simple as Python but fast as C++.
  • It supports the concept of object-oriented programming.
  • Go features a super-fast compiler.
  • It supports pointers like C++.
  • It comes with an embedded garbage collector.

Applications of Go

Here are some significant projects where Go can be used:

  • Google uses Go on its cloud platforms to improve the cloud infrastructure.
  • Apart from Google, many other famous cloud computing platforms such as Dropbox, Terraform, Kubernetes, and Docker are also using Go.
  • Go is also used by YouTube, SoundCloud, and Netflix to reduce the high load of media performance.

Go Job Opportunities

Right now, there are not too many jobs for Go developers because big tech companies only use it for some complex tasks. Nonetheless, Go is considered a language of the future. In the current scenario, Go ranks 9th in the list of most popular programming languages. The salary of a Go developer can vary from $4k to $93k. Following are the top domains to work for Go developers:

  • System Programming
  • Serverless Computing
  • Business Applications
  • Cloud-native Development
  • IoT

9. Ruby

Ruby Programming

Ruby is also a popular programming language, and it’s not a new language. It was developed in the mid-90s and gained high popularity over the years. Ruby is an object-oriented programming language. Also, it is a dynamically typed and interpreted programming language.

It is much like Python, and the two programming languages share several similarities. Ruby is used as the popular Ruby on Rails web application framework. Ruby has one of the friendliest and most helpful user communities.

The chief inventor of Ruby is Yukihiro Matsumoto. He always encourages members. Therefore, the community also has the tagline “Matz is nice, and so we are nice.” Most of the modern web apps such as Airbnb, Github, ASKfm, Fiverr, and Goodreads utilize Ruby in one way or another.

Ruby Example

puts "puts works"
puts " with line breaks."
print "print works"
print " with no line breaks."
printf("\n\nprintf formats numbers like %7.2f, and
strings like %s.",3.14156,"me")

Output:

puts works
with line breaks.
print works with no line breaks.
printf formats numbers like 3.14, and strings like
me.

Ruby Features

  • It is a pure object-oriented programming language.
  • It is easy to learn and highly recommended for developers seeking a career in web development.
  • Ruby is very flexible. You can easily remove and redefine the existing classes.
  • It is a dynamically typed language.
  • Like Java and Python, Ruby is case-sensitive.
  • It comes with an inbuilt garbage collector.
  • It has a very famous framework, Ruby on Rails.

Applications of Ruby

  • Ruby is primarily used for web development. There are various web applications that are built on Ruby.
  • Spotify uses Ruby on Rails.
  • Ruby is considered the best choice for content management websites.
  • It can easily integrate itself with DBMS and thus, allows you to manage a complex database.

Ruby Job Opportunities

TIOBE and Stack Overflow ranks Ruby as the 10th and 9th most popular programming languages of 2021, respectively. As Ruby is mainly used for web development, there are not too many jobs related to it. Nonetheless, in the USA, every month, more than 10k new jobs are listed for Ruby developers. The salary of a Ruby developer can vary from $4k to $93k.

10. R Programming Language

R Programming Language

R is one of the most popular programming languages used for complex statistical analysis and graphics programming. It is used primarily for ad hoc analysis and to explore large datasets.

It is the second most used programming language for data science. R is often used for data mining projects also. R Programming Language is much more durable than other statistical programming languages.

It is also compatible with LaTex, which is a Scientific Document TypeSetting program to create documents. We can integrate R code with LaTex document and create our own professional documentation for open-source code. The document that we create with R and LaTex provides a better, accurate, clean and efficient way to represent the code documentation and data visualization for open-source projects.

R Example

#with quotes
print("Hello World")

#without quotes
print("Hello World", quote = FALSE)

Output

"Hello World"

Hello World

R Features

  • It is an open-source programming language.
  • It contains more scientific and numeric libraries than Python.
  • R is a statically typed programming language, which makes it faster than Python.
  • It has many powerful graphical data visualization libraries.
  • It also has a substantial active community for data science.
  • R is well known for its support for complex statistical calculations.
  • It is an interpreted language.
  • It can easily integrate with any database.
  • All the popular platforms support it.
  • It can also pull data from web APIs, servers, and many other formats.

Applications of R

  • Many tech giants like Mozilla, Microsoft, and Foursquare use R for machine learning projects.
  • Amazon uses R and its data analysis tools to improve its cross-product suggestions.
  • Facebook uses R to predict colleague interactions and update its social network graph.

R Job Opportunities

In the domain of data science and machine learning, R is more popular than Python, and it is the only language that holds the caliber of replacing Python in the data science domain. Many companies who hire data scientists and machine learning engineers look for developers’ knowledge in R because a data scientist should know at least two different programming languages. The salary of an R developer can vary from $92k to $130k.

Conclusion

If you are a beginner and going to choose programming or development as your career, then you must read the article carefully and choose the best language in all aspects of your job. You may ask us for any queries in the comment box.

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