10 Top Programming Languages To Learn

By | February 21, 2021
10 Top Programming Languages To Learn

The world is now more focused on technology. Right now we are surrounded by different technologies and gadgets. But the thing to notice about it is how this technology is running? What are the different programming languages are responsible for giving instructions to machines? here in this article, we discuss 10 Top Programming Languages you can pick to start your coding and programming journey in 2021.

Programming languages are the key to every running software. A programming language helps you to give instruction to a machine, so the machine can perform tasks.


Introduction to Programming Languages

What is Programming?

“A programming language is the way or set of rules used to send the instructions to the computer systems that what task they have to perform and how. It’s the way of communication with the computer system.”

In simple words, the programming language is the language of the computer. There are several programming languages available in the market and each programming language has its own set of grammatical rules which is known as syntax.

Different programming languages are designed for different purposes. And Every programming language comes with specific features. Although the syntax of every high-level programming language is different from another, but they all share the same concepts.

Importance of Programming Languages

Importance of programming languages

In the current generation of technology, nothing is possible without a programming language. Here are the brief reasons why should we learn and understand a programming language:

  • Required to interact with machines and computers.
  • To automate tasks.
  • To harness the power of computing for all humans.
  • To create more intelligent technology and machines.

10 Top Programming Languages of the Future

As technology is growing and changing rapidly, new programming languages are also taking over the market and replacing the old ones. The competition is increasing on a high-speed day by day. To be in the race or programming, the developer just needs to get updated with the latest trends in programming and the knowledge of top programming languages.

In this article, we have centralized our discussion on the top 10 programming languages of the future in 2021 and a brief introduction of the top programming languages.

So let’s start with this.

1. Python

Python Programming Languages

Python is the most popular language of 2021. Python is a high-level general-purpose programming language supported by many useful libraries and provides web frameworks. Python is best for beginners to learn as its syntax is also very simple and almost like English

Python is used for web development, desktop applications, web applications, etc. Python web frameworks are Django, Flask, TurboGears, Web2Py, etc. Mozilla, Instagram, and Spotify are examples of Django.

Python has also packages like NumPy and SciPy which are mainly used in scientific computing, engineering, and mathematics.


# To add two numbers
num1 = 1.5
num2 = 6.3
# Add two numbers
sum = float(num1) + float(num2)
# Display the sum
print('The sum of {0} and {1} is {2}'.format(num1, num2, sum))


The sum of 1.5 and 6.3 is 7.8

Python Features

Let’s discuss some most important features of Python, which justify its popularity amongst developers.

  • The first and most crucial feature of python is its learning curve python is considered the most accessible programming language and an ideal language for Beginners.
  • It has a beautiful syntax, and unlike other programming languages here in python, you do not have to care about semi-colas and brackets to terminate a statement or expression.
  • It is a Cross-Platform open source programming language, so you do not have to make any changes in the source code when you want to run it on various platforms.
  • It is an Interpreted Programming Language, which means it uses Interpreter to execute its system, and the interpreter reads a line and simultaneously executes it.
  • It supports Object-Oriented Programming and all the concepts of classes and objects.
  • It has a large number of Open-source libraries, which make it the most versatile programming language, except the mobile development Python has libraries for each field of programming.
  • Python has substantial active community support across the globe, from web development to Artificial Intelligence; everyone is using python for their projects.

Python Applications

Here are some of the essential domains which are using python.

  • Python has many powerful web-frameworks such as Django, Flask, Pyramid, etc. which are used to create web-applications.
  • Python can also be used to build GUI desktop applications; it has many libraries and toolkits such as Tk, Kivy, pyqt, etc. which can serve this purpose.
  • Python is famous for its Scientific and Numeric applications from Data Science to Artificial intelligence python has libraries that are helpful for such projects.
  • In Software Development, python can be used to build control and management testing.
  • Like other high-level programming, languages python can also be used to build Console Based Applications.
  • Using Python, we can even build Multi-Media based applications.

Python Job Opportunities

Python developers are very much in demand; In only January 2021, there were 74k new jobs posted for Python developers in the USA. If we took the USA Job Market as a reference, The salary of a python developer could vary from $71,557 to $110,919.

Here are some significant domains which ask for python developers:

2. JavaScript

Javscript Programming

Next, JavaScript holds the second position in the list of top 20 programming languages. It is a very popular scripting language, and it is almost impossible to say that there is a developer without using JavaScript in some way. JavaScript is now used for both back-end and front-end development after Node.JS.

JavaScript is essential with HTML and CSS for front-end development. Popular giants like Facebook, Gmail, Twitter, and YouTube also rely on JavaScript to design interactive front-end for users. JavaScript’s popular frameworks are Angular, React, Vue, etc. JavaScript has a flexible syntax and supported by all major browsers.


<title>Multiplication Table</title>
<script type="text/javascript">
var rows = prompt("Enter number of rows: ");
var cols = prompt("Enter number of columns: ");
if(rows == "" || rows == null)
rows = 10;
if(cols== "" || cols== null)
cols = 10;
createTable(rows, cols);
function createTable(rows, cols)
var j=1;
var output = "<table border='1' width='500' cellspacing='0'cellpadding='5'>";
output = output + "<tr>";
output = output + "<td>" + i*j + "</td>";
j = j+1;
output = output + "</tr>";
j = 1;
output = output + "</table>";


Enter number of rows: 2
Enter number of columns: 2
1 2
2 4

JavaScript Features

Here are some features of JavaScript:

  • It can manipulate the DOM; for instance, using JavaScript, we can change the HTML elements on the page and their Attributes.
  • Though it is a Scripting language, it also supports the features of high-level programming languages such as Functions, methods, and objects.
  • Originally JavaScript used as a client-side language; now it can also be used as a server-side language.
  • It is a platform-independent language, and its code can be executed on any popular web-browser.
  • It has inbuilt Date Time support functions.
  • Form Validation is one of the most powerful features of JavaScript; rather than submitting the invalid from the server, JavaScript can validate the form data on the client-side.
  • It has many popular frameworks and libraries which are used by big tech companies such as Google, Facebook, etc.

 JavaScript Application

Here are some common applications of JavaScript, which signify its use in the IT industry.

  • The primary job of JavaScript to add behavior to the web page, which makes a webpage more interactive and responsive.
  • Now using the JavaScript Libraries, we can create web-applications.
  • With JavaScript’s Node.js, we can create server-side applications.
  • JS can also be used to create mobile web applications.
  • Smartwatches also use JavaScript applications.
  • Many gaming development entities, such as unity itself, use JavaScript for gaming development.

Job Opportunities

Web developers are always in demand, so do the JavaScript developers, and we cannot imagine a webpage without JavaScript. After the release of Node.js in the market, JS developer’s reach has been pushed from the front end to the back end, now there are many organizations that completely work on JS for the client as well as the server-side scripting.

Companies like Google, Facebook, etc. spending millions on JS projects like Angular and React rather than on hard-coded high-level programming languages. In the US, every month, more than 50K jobs posted for JS developer and the salary range vary from $57K to $144K per/year.

Here is the list of some major JavaScript Job:

3. Java

Java Programming Languages

Java is an object-oriented programming language and the base in the world of programming language for more than 20 years. Java is the most secure and portable language which follows the “write once, run anywhere” concept. JVM (Java Virtual Machine) makes it mobile and platform-independent. Many competitive languages came to the market now, but Java still has a long run to go. Java has one of the largest developer communities. The android operating system is also based on Java programming language, and android apps are also developed using Java.

As a rough idea, 90% of Fortune 500 companies are using Java.


public class Prime {
public static void main(String[] args) {
int num = 29;
boolean flag = false;
for(int i = 2; i <= num/2; ++i)
// condition for nonprime number
if(num % i == 0)
flag = true;
if (!flag)
System.out.println(num + " is a prime number.");
System.out.println(num + " is not a prime number.");


29 is a prime number.

Java Features

  • It is a High-level, Multi-paradigm Object-oriented programming Language.
  • It is a Platform Independent programming language that works on the principle write ones and runs anywhere.
  • Though it is not an ideal programming language for those who are entirely new to programming, it is the most powerful and robust programming language.
  • The code written on Java is more secure as compared to its rival programming languages such as C++ and python.
  • Its program promises high performance.
  • It supports Multi-Threading, which is not supported by many other high-level programming languages. In Multi-threading, multiple threads of a program can be executed concurrently.
  • It supports Automatic Memory Management and Dynamic Compilation.

Application of Java

  • Right now, Java is mostly used to build Mobile applications; Android Studio gives support for Java, which helps a Java developer to create an Android app using Java.
  • Java is primarily famous for making Applications or software; apart from Mobile development, Java is widely used to develop Desktop GUI Applications.
  • Java is one of the few versatile programming languages; it can also be used to develop web application.
  • Due to Java code robustness and security, Java is also used to build Cloud-based applications where security if one of the major concerns.
  • Java is the primary language used by many gaming entities to create high-quality games

Java Job Opportunities

Java is one of the oldest programming languages; for a two whole decade, it holds the number 1 position as the most popular programming language, and yet it is one of the most used programming languages. Many organizations hire Java Developers for various job roles such as Web development, Android App development, Game Development, etc. In the US, every month, more than 65K new Jobs posted for Java Developers and the salary of a Java Developer vary from $69K to $104K.

Here are some major Java Job roles:

  • Enterprise Application Development
  • Android App Development
  • Big Data
  • Web Development

4. C++


C++ is the start of object-oriented programming, which builds on C with the OOPs features. C++ is a flexible and highly efficient programming language. C++ is always a strong and well-performed language. Google Chrome and Microsoft Windows are the best examples of this. If you are going to start a career in any object-oriented programming, then it is a must learn C++ for you. C++ is used to develop desktop applications, GUI applications, 3D games, and real-time mathematical solutions.


#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
cout << "Hello, World!";
return 0;


Hello, World!

C++ Features

  • It is simple and easy to learn a programming language and one of the best programming languages for those who are completely new to the programming domain.
  • It is a Multi-paradigm high-level programming language.
  • It contains mostly all the important data structure and concepts which are even missing in Java and Python.
  • The code compilation speed of C++ is far better than Java and Python.
  • It supports manual memory management, which makes this closer to the low-level programming languages.
  • Initially, it was only supported by Windows, but now it is a platform-independent programming language.

Applications of C++

  • It is mostly used to build Desktop Applications and Games.
  • There many popular apps such as Google Chrome, which are built on C++.
  • Adobe and MySQL are also developed in C++.
  • C++ is very close to the low-level programming language, which makes it compatible with system hardware; that’s why many developers use C++ to develop new operating systems.
  • There are many high-level programming languages that are built on C++ itself.
  • Many small smart devices, such as Smartwatches operating systems rely on C++.

C++ Job Opportunities

Indeed, rank C++ as the 4th most demanding programming language and in the USA itself every month more than 40K new job posted for C++ developers. Though there are not too many jobs for standard C++ developers once you master the C++ advanced skills, there are plenty of jobs out there.

The salary of a C++ developer can vary from $41K to $108K per annum.

Here is the list of some significant C++ Job roles:

  • System Programming
  • Game Development
  • IoT and Real-Time Systems
  • Machine Learning, Deep Learning
  • Embedded Systems, Distributed Systems

5. Swift

Swift Programming Languages

For iOS and Android mobile app development, Swift is the highest-paid career path. Swift programming language was released in 2014. It’s a relatively new language and an excellent place to start. Swift is growing rapidly, and according to Github’s report, Swift is the 13th most popular programming language. As the scope of iOS apps is increasing, the number of swift developers is also growing.

Swift is easy to understand and very expressive language. Even beginners also can develop robust and flexible apps with the Swift language. Apple’s iPhone always remains at its top position in the best mobile smartphones, so the career growth in choosing Swift for the future will also be on a high.


class Counter {
var count = 0
func increment() {
count += 1
print("value of count in increment() func is ",count)
func increment(by amount: Int) {
count += amount
print("value of count in increment(by:) func is ",count)
func reset() {
count = 0
print("value of count in reset func is ",count)
let counter = Counter()
counter.increment(by: 5)
/* prints:
value of count in increment() func is 1
value of count in increment(by:) func is 6
value of count in reset func is 0

Swift Features

  • Compared to Objective C, Swift is very easy to learn.
  • It is an open-source programming language.
  • Apart from Mac, It can be used by Linux to create Swift libraries.
  • It comes with better speed performance, dynamic libraries with fewer errors.
  • It has two significant Frameworks Cocoa and Cocoa Toch, which enhance the app quality.
  • Apple focuses on security, and Swift serves this purpose.

Swift Applications

It can only be used for Apple platforms such as iOS, macOS, watchOS, and tvOS. If any application or game is not built on Objective C, then it would be made on Swift.

Swift Job Opportunities

The Apple platform only supports swift, so if you are into Apple devices and want to land a developer job in Apple. inc, then you need to learn Swift. It was designed to replace Objective C; now all the Apple platform applications run on swift.

Landing a job in Apple. inc could be hard, so many developers do not choose swift, but there will always a demand for iOS and macOS developers.

The salary of a Swift developer can vary from $6K to $125K.

Here are some major Swift Job roles:

  • iOS App Development
  • System Programming
  • Client-side development (via WebAssembly)
  • Deep Learning
  • IoT

6. C#

C# Programming Languages

Pronounced as C Sharp. It is an object-oriented, general-purpose programming language that is built on the foundation of C. C++ is a part of the .Net framework of Microsoft for building Windows applications. Just as Swift is for iOS applications, C# is for Microsoft platforms. C# also has syntax like other C-derived languages like C++, so it is easy to adopt if you are familiar with the C family.

C# is also used to build cross-platform applications on the Xamarin Platform. By using C#, you can write lengthy codes in a single line with the Xamarin platform and then deploy them to both platforms like iOS and Android simultaneously.

If you are crazy about VR and want to go with this, then you have to choose C# to learn. The best thing about C# is it gives you the ability to develop any application you want, starting from the complex APIs to desktop applications.


namespace SumGenerator
class Program
static void Main(string[] args)
Console.WriteLine("Write the first integer:");
int first = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());
Console.WriteLine("Write the second integer:");
int second = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());
int result = first + second;
Console.WriteLine($"The result is {result}");


Write the first integer:
Write the second integer:
The result is 20

C# Features

  • It is similar to C++ and C language, which makes it easy to learn for a C++ developer.
  • It has many libraries and costly data types.
  • It is maintained and supported by Microsoft itself, and with continuous updates, Microsoft tries to make it more secure and modern.
  • It helps the concepts of Object-Oriented Programming.
  • It is interoperable with C++, which means it can do anything which C++ can do.
  • It compiles and executes its code very fast.

C# Applications

C# applications are mostly limited to Microsoft platforms.

Here is the list of Applications that can build on C#:

  • Windows client applications
  • Windows libraries and components
  • Windows services
  • Web applications
  • Web services and Web API
  • Backend services
  • Azure cloud applications and services
  • Backend database using ML/Data tools
  • Interoperability software such as Office, SharePoint, SQL Server, and so on.
  • Artificial Intelligence and Machine learning
  • Blockchains and distributed ledger technology including cryptocurrency
  • Internet of Things (IoT) devices

C# Job Opportunities

C# is quite popular among application developers because it can be used from desktop to web-applications. It is very compatible with Azure cloud computing, and with .NET, it rules the web-applications domain.

In the USA, every month, more than 30K new Jobs posted for the C# developers, and out of them mostly related to the .NET developer.

The salary of a C# developer varies from $32K to $96K.

Here is the list of some significant C# job roles:

  • Server-Side programming
  • App development
  • Web Development
  • Game Development

Software for Windows Platform

7. Kotlin


It’s an open-source product by JetBrains. This is also the most loved and demanding programming language of 2021. A statically typed language runs on JVM, and Kotlin can translate to JavaScript source code. Kotlin is another option to those who don’t want to make Android apps with Java, and Google officially recommends it now. Kotlin is compatible with Android Studio 3, and this is the reason behind its widespread growth.

Soon, Kotlin will be in the most used languages as it is already used by popular productions like Netflix, Pinterest, Amazon web services, etc. If things go at the same speed, soon Kotlin will be the new replacement of Java.


fun main(args: Array<String>) {
val first: Int = 10
val second: Int = 20
val sum = first + second
println("The sum is: $sum")


The sum is: 30

Kotlin Features

  • It is the official language support by Google for Android development.
  • It is a static type like Java and gives the same performance.
  • As compared to Java, it is straightforward to learn, and its syntax is quite compact and precise.
  • Kotlin provides Null Safety, which reduces the android app crashing probability by 70%.
  • It comes with many Morden features such as Lambda functions, smart casts, null safety, operator overloading, etc.
  • It is interoperable with java. We can quickly call Kotlin code from Java and Java code from Kotlin.

Kotlin Applications

Kotlin is primarily used to build Android Applications; if you are not a java fan, then you should learn Kotlin for the Android Apps. There are many popular apps that are built on Kotlin.

List of Android applications that are built on Kotlin.

  • Pinterest
  • Coursera
  • Trello
  • Evernote

Kotlin Job Opportunities

In 2018 Google Announced Kotlin as the official language for the Android app development; since then, Kotlin’s job market raise by a tremendous speed; with the dropping popularity of Java, it would not be surprising if Google revokes the use of Java for the Android development.

The era of Android does not seem to end any time soon, so there is always a demand for the Kotlin App developer, there are many companies that source income depend only on their Android app, so they always try to heir a Kotlin Developer instead of Java.

The salary of a Kotlin developer can vary from $57K to $125K.

Here are some major Kotlin Job roles:

  • Android App developer.
  • Android Smartwatch app developer

8. Go Programming Language

Go Programming Languages

Go is simple to write like Python but more efficient like C++. The mastermind behind this subtle approach is Robert Griesemer, Ken Thompson, and Rob Pike and developed by Google. Go can handle the hardest computational problems. Go is the advanced added featured version of C, including compiled language, statically typed, garbage collection, structural typing, and CSP-style concurrency. Kubernetes and Ethereum Cryptozoic Project rebased on Go. Go is the new programming language with a desirable new community and very compelling for your next open source project.


package main
import "fmt"
func main() {
var greeting = "Hello world!"
fmt.Printf("String Length is: ")


String Length is: 12

Go Features

  • It is supported and maintained by Google.
  • With Go, we can quickly implement a Concurrent system.
  • It is simple, as Python and Fasts as C++.
  • It supports the concept of Object-Oriented Programming.
  • It has a super-fast compiler.
  • It Supports pointers like C++.
  • It comes with an embedded Garbage collector.

Go Applications

Here are some significant Projects where Go can be used:

  • Google Use go on its Cloud platforms to improve the cloud infrastructure.
  • Apart from Google, many other famous cloud computing platforms such as Dropbox, Terraform, Kubernetes, and Docker are also using Go.
  • Go is also used by YouTube, SoundCloud, and Netflix to reduce the high load of Media performance.

Go Job Opportunities

Right now, there are not too many jobs for Go developers because big tech companies only use it for some complex tasks, but Go considered a future language. In the Current scenario, Go ranked 9th position in the most popular programming languages.

The salary of a Go developer can vary from $4K to $93K

Here is the list of some Go job roles:

  • System Programming
  • Serverless Computing
  • Business Applications
  • Cloud-Native Development
  • IoT

9. Ruby

Ruby Programming

Ruby is the most used programming language, and it’s not a new language. Ruby was developed in the mid-90s and gained high popularity also. Ruby is an object-oriented programming language, including features like dynamic and interpreted. It is much like Python and has similarities in many aspects. Ruby is used as popular Ruby on Rails web application framework. Ruby provides the friendliest and most helpful user communities. Ruby’s chief inventor is Yukihiro Matsumoto. He always encourages members. Therefore, the community also has the tagline “Matz is nice, and so we are nice.”

Most of the modern web apps such as Airbnb, Github, ASKfm, Fiverr, and Goodreads are utilizing Ruby in one way or another.


puts "puts works"
puts " with line breaks."
print "print works"
print " with no line breaks."
printf("\n\nprintf formats numbers like %7.2f, and
strings like %s.",3.14156,"me")


puts works
with line breaks.
print works with no line breaks.
printf formats numbers like 3.14, and strings like

Ruby Features

  • It is a Pure Object-Oriented Programming Language.
  • It is easy to learn and highly recommend for those developers who are seeking a career in web development.
  • It is very flexible. You can easily remove and redefine the existing classes.
  • It is a dynamically typed language.
  • Like other programming languages, Ruby is case sensitive.
  • It comes with inbuilt garbage collector features.
  • It has a very famous framework, Ruby, on Rails.

Ruby Applications:

  • Ruby is primarily used for web development.
  • There are various web applications that are built on Ruby.
  • Spotify uses Ruby on Rails, which is a framework of a ruby.
  • Ruby consider as the best choice for the Content management website.
  • It can easily integrate itself with DBMS and allow you to manage a complex database.

Ruby Jobs Opportunities.

TIOBE ranks 10th and Stack Overflow ranks 9th position to ruby in the most popular programming languages of 2021. As Ruby is mostly used for web development, that’s why there are not too many jobs related to it, yet in the USA, every month, more than 10K new jobs listed for the Ruby developers.

The salary of a Ruby developer can vary from $4k to $93K.

10. R Programming Language

R Programming Language

R is one of the most popular programming languages used for complex statistical analysis and graphics programming. Mainly it is used for ad hoc analysis and to explore large datasets.

R is the second most used programming language for data science after Python. It is often used for data mining projects also. R language is much more durable than other statistical programming languages when compared to object-oriented features. You can use Rd for professional documentation for your open-source projects, which are R’s LaTeX-like documentation. So use the R programming language for accurate, clean, and efficient data visualization in your open-source project.

Output: “How are you?”

R Features:

  • It is an open-source programming language.
  • It contains more scientific and numeric libraries as compared to its rival Python.
  • It is a static types programming language which makes it faster than python.
  • It has many powerful Graphical data visualization libraries.
  • It also has a substantial active community for Data Science.
  • It is well known for its complex statistical calculation.
  • It is an interpreted language.
  • It can easily integrate with any database.
  • All the popular platforms support it.
  • It can also pull data from web APIs, servers, and many other formats.

R Applications:

  • R is used by many tech giants such as Mozilla, Microsoft, Foursquare, etc. for machine learning projects.
  • Amazon use R and its data analysis tools to improve their cross-product suggestions.
  • Facebook uses R to predict colleague interactions and update its social network graph.

R Job Opportunities:

In the domain of Data Science and Machine learning, R is more popular than Python, and it is the only language that holds the caliber of replacing Python in the Data Science Domain.

Many companies who hire a data scientists and machine learning engineers look for the developer’s knowledge in R because a Data Scientist should know 2 different programming languages.

The Salary of an R developer can vary from $92K to $130K


If you are a beginner and going to choose a programmer or developer as your career, then you must read the article carefully and choose the best language in all aspects of your job. You may ask us for any queries in the comment box.

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